Versatility in Cross-Cultural Variations of Personification
Literature was first structured by great figures’ literary and non-literary works that gave birth to the metaphorical conceptualization. The personalities like Dante and Rumi who developed the first social-cultural universality by using personifications – though from two different parts of the world. The power of poetry which can be created in personification is one of the different ways to bring universality of the metaphorical expressions into literature. Although personification is the important part of metaphorical poetry, very few researchers analyzed it. To this end, inspired form Kovecses (2007) classification of metaphoric expressions, it was attempted to analyze Rumi’s Masnavi Ma?navi’s (Spiritual Couplets) first (4003 verses) and second books (3822 verses) in terms of personification along with Dante’s Devine comedy including Inferno and Paradise. Chi-square test was run to find the type, the frequency and significance of the personification’s application in these two poets’ works. Findings revealed significant differences namely, nature and animate personifications in these great works. Finally, it was revealed that poetry could manifest different socio-cultural and religious bonds between different societies.
Key words: Personification; Conceptualization; Metaphorical expressions
Aikin, J. (1799). On Personification in Poetry [Part X]. Monthly Magazine, (8), 709-10.
Ambarita, A. (2008). An Analysis of Non-Literal Meaning in Robert Frost’s Selected Poems. Medan: Fakultas Sastra USU.
Barg Neisi, K. (2003). Masnavi Ma?navi. Tehran: Fekr Rouz Pulications.
Gibbs, R. (2002). The Poetics of Mind. Cambridge.: Cambridge University Press.
Goddard, V. E. (2011). Poetry and Philosophy in Boethius and Dante. A thesis submitted in conformity with the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy Centre for Medieval Studies University of Toronto.
Hawes, G. (2008). Metamorphosis and Metamorphic Identity: The Myth of Actaeon in Works of ovid, Dante and John Gower. Classical Association of Victoria, 21, 21-42.
Khaledian, M. A. (2009). Comparative Study of Speech Thoughts in Masnavi Ma?navi Considering Other Speakers. Tehran: Ihsan Publications.
Kövecses, Z. (2000). Metaphor and Emotion. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Kövecses, Z. (2002). Metaphor: A Practical Introduction. New York/Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Kövecses, Z. (2007). Variation in Metaphor. Eoِtvِos University. Ilha do Desterro Florianópolis (pp.13-39). jul./dez.
Kövecses, Z. (2008). The Conceptual Structure of Happiness. Studies Across Disciplines in the Humanities and Social Sciences 3 (pp. 131-143). Helsinki: Helsinki Collegium for Advanced Studies.
Lakoff, G. (1998). Contemporary Theory of Metaphor. In M. Ortony (Ed.), Metaphor and Thought (pp. 203-251). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Lakoff, G., & Turner, M. (1989). More than Cool Reason: A Field Guide to Poetic Metaphor. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
Nordquist, R. (2012). What Is Personification? Examples of Personification in Prose, Poetry, and Advertising. Retrieved July 4, 2012 from http.www.about.com/Grammar and Composition.
Rossini, A. (2000). Dante and Ovid: A Comparative Study of Narrative Techniques (Unpublished Phd’s Thesis). Graduate Department of Italian Studie, University of Toronto.
Shamisa, S. (2007). Figurative Language and Rhetoric. Tehran: Mitra Publication.
Sinulingga, M. (2007). The Semantic Analysis of Non-Literal Meaning in the Selected Song’s Lyrics of Evanescence (Unpublished master’s Thesis). Medan: Fakultas Sastra.
Tourage, M. (2005). The Hermeneutics of Eroticism in the Poetry of Rumi. Variorum Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa and the Middle East. A Duk University Press. 25(3), 600-616.
Whinfield, E. H. (2012). The Spiritual Couplets of Maulana Jalalu-D-Din Muhammad Rumi. Retrieved June 1 2012 from http://www.cit.ics.saitama-u.ac.jp/~far
Zamani, K. (2008). Comprehensive Explanation of Masnavi Ma?navi. Tehran: Itela?at Publications.
Zhan, D. (2009). Metaphors in the First Stanza of Ode to the West Wind: A Cognitive Linguistic Approach. Asian Social Science, 5(7), 18-22.
- There are currently no refbacks.
How to do online submission to another Journal?
If you have already registered in Journal A, then how can you submit another article to Journal B? It takes two steps to make it happen:
1. Register yourself in Journal B as an Author
Find the journal you want to submit to in CATEGORIES, click on “VIEW JOURNAL”, “Online Submissions”, “GO TO LOGIN” and “Edit My Profile”. Check “Author” on the “Edit Profile” page, then “Save”.
Go to “User Home”, and click on “Author” under the name of Journal B. You may start a New Submission by clicking on “CLICK HERE”.
We only use three mailboxes as follows to deal with issues about paper acceptance, payment and submission of electronic versions of our journals to databases: firstname.lastname@example.org; email@example.com; firstname.lastname@example.org
Copyright © 2010 Canadian Academy of Oriental and Occidental Culture
Address: 9375 Rue de Roissy Brossard, Québec, J4X 3A1, Canada
Telephone: 1-514-558 6138
E-mail: email@example.com; firstname.lastname@example.org; email@example.com