Emotional Intelligence and Language Competence: A Case Study of the English Language Learners at Taif University English Language Centre

Muhammad Umar Farooq


Variation in general abilities of human beings gave birth to the concept of intelligence. Since 1990, when for the first time emotional intelligence was introduced, it has become a buzzword in many fields including education, management studies, and artificial intelligence. Within the context of foreign language learning, it is being applied in educational institutions for language competence. An empirical study was conducted on English language learners at Taif University English Language Centre (TUELC) to find out relationship between their Emotional Intelligence (EI) and language competence. For this study, a group of 200 (male and female) students were selected randomly studying English at the undergraduate level. Data collected through EI Inventory was matched with their academic achievement in English language based on assessment of four skills. The result revealed a close relationship between EI and language competence of undergraduate students at TUELC and EI also affects students’ English language competence.


Emotional Intelligence; Language competency; English language teaching; Saudi undergraduates

Full Text:



Akram, R. S. (2004). Emotional intelligence and academic achievement among university students (Research report), National Institute of Psychology Pakistan.

Bar-On, R. (2002). The emotional quotient inventory (EQ-i): Technical manual. Toronto, Canada: Multi- Health Systems.

Bar-On, R. (2000). Emotional and social intelligence: Insights from the emotional quotient inventory (EQ-i). In R. Bar-On, & J. D. A. Parker (Eds.), Handbook of emotional intelligence (pp.363-388). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Bar-On, R. (2004). Emotional quotient inventory: A measure of emotional intelligence. Canada: Multi-Health Systems Inc.

Bar-On, R. (2006). The bar-on model of emotional-social intelligence (ESI). Psicothema, 18, supl., 13-25.

Bar-On, R. (2007). Educating people to be emotionally intelligent. Johannesburg, SA: Heinemann Educational Publishers.

Bar-On, R. & Handley, R. (1999). Optimizing people. Texas: Pro-Philes Press.

Brackett, M. A., &Salovey, P. (2004).Measuring emotional intelligence with the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso emotional intelligence test (MSCEIT). In G. Geher (Ed.), Measurement of emotional intelligence (pp.181-196). Hauppauge, NY: Nova Science Publishers.

Cianciolo, A. T., & Sternberg, R. J. (2004). Intelligence a brief history. United Kingdom: Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Brown, J. D., Robson, G., & Rosenkjar, P. (1996). Personality, motivation, anxiety, strategies, and language proficiency of Japanese students. In Z. Dornyei & R. Schmidt (Eds.), Motivation and second language acquisition (pp.361-398). Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.

Chang, K. B. T. (2008). Can we improve emotional intelligence? Emotional intelligence: Perspectives on educational and positive psychology (pp.25-45). New York: Peter Lang Publishing Inc.

Cherniss, C., Goleman, D., Emmerling, R., Cowan, K., & Adler, M. (1998). Bringing emotional intelligence to the workplace. Retrieved from http://www.eiconsortium.org/reports/technical_report.html

Dağlı, M. E. (2006). Ergenliktezekabölümü, duygusalzekaveakademikbaşarıarasındakiilişki (Unpublished master’s thesis). Mersin University, Mersin. Retrieved from www.tez2.yok.gov.tr

Emmerling, R. J., & Goleman, D. (2003). Emotional intelligence: Issues and common misunderstandings. Retrieved from http://www.google.co.pk/how individuals perceive understand utilize and manage emotional information

Fabio, S., & Vanesssa, U. D. (2005). Linking emotional intelligence and performance at work: Current research evidence with individuals and groups. Mount Gerald Publisher: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Gardner, H. (1983). Frames of mind: The theory of multiple intelligences. USA: Basic Books, HarperCollins Publishers, Inc.

Gardner, H. (2006). Multiple intelligences: New horizons. New York: Basic Books

Goleman, D. (1995). Emotional intelligence. USA: Bantam Books.

Goleman, D. (2000). The emotionally intelligent workplace. An ei-based theory of performance. Retrieved from http://www.sq.4mg.com/ GolemanEIskills.htm

Goleman, D., & Cherniss C. (2001). The Emotionally intelligent workplace: How to select for, measure, and improve emotional intelligence in individuals, groups, and organizations. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Goleman, D., Boyatzis, R., & McKee, A. (2002). Primal leadership: Learning to lead with emotional intelligence. USA: Harvard Business School Press.

Greenspan, S. I. (1989). Emotional intelligence. In Learning and education: Psychoanalytic perspectives. Emotions and behavior monographs, (No.6, pp.209-243). Madison, CT, US: International Universities Press.

Horwitz, E. K., Horwitz, M. B., & Cope, J. (1986). Foreign language classroom anxiety. Modern Language Journal, 70, 125-132.

Javid, C. Z. (2013). An investigation of effectiveness of simulation in developing oral skills: A case study. European Scientific Journal, 9(32), 35-52. Retrieved from http://eujournal.org/index.php/esj/article/view/2027

Karaduman, K. Ç. (2010). The Relationship Between Emotional Intelligence Factors and Job Performance. Unpublished MA Thesis, Marmara University, İstanbul, Turkey.

MacGilchrist, B., Mayers, K., & Reed, J. (2004). The Intelligent School (2nd ed.). London, Thousand Oaks, New Delhi: SAGE Publications.

Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary. (2013). Springfield, USA: Merriam-Webster Incorporated.

Mayer, J. D., & Salovey, P. (1997). What is emotional intelligence? In P. Salovey & D.J. Sluyter (Eds.), Emotional development and emotional intelligence: Educational implications (pp.3-31). New York: New York Basic Books.

Mayer, J. D., Salovey, P., & Caruso, D. R. (2002). Mayer-Salovey-Caruso emotional intelligence test (MSCEIT), Canada: Multi-Health Systems Inc.

McCluskey, A. S. (1997, February). Lifelong learning: Emotional intelligence in schools. Retrieved from http://www.connected.org/learn/school.html

Merkowitz, R. F., & Earnest G. W. (2006, August). Emotional intelligence: A pathway to self-understanding and improved leadership capacities. Journal of Extension, 44(4). Retrieved from http://www.joe.org/joe/2006august/iw3.php

Oately, K. (2004). A brief history. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.

Pandey, V. C. (2005). Intelligence and motivation. New Delhi: Isha Books.

Panju, M. (2008). 7 successful strategies to promote emotional intelligence in the classroom. Britain: The Continuum International Publishing Group.

Parker, J. D. A., Creque, R. E., BArnhart, D. L., Haris, J. I., Majeski, S. A., Wood, L. M., ... M. J. Hogan. (2004). Academic achievement in high school: Does emotional intelligence matter? Personality and Individual Differences.37, 1321-1330.

Payne, W. L. (1986). Dissertation abstracts international, 47, p. 203A.

Petrides, K. V., & Furnham, A. (2000). On the dimensional structure of emotional intelligence. Personality and Individual Differences, 29, 313-320.

Pishghadam, R. (2009). A quantitative analysis of the relationship between emotional intelligence and foreign language learning. Electronic Journal of Foreign Language Teaching, 6(1), 31-41.

Şakrak, G. (2009). The relationship between emotional intelligence and foreign language anxiety in Turkish EFL students (Unpublished master’s thesis). Bilkent University, Ankara, Turkey.

Salovey, P., & Mayer, J. D. (1990). Emotional intelligence. Imagination, Cognition, and Personality, 9, 185-211

Shahmohamadi, F., & Hasanzadeh, R. (2011). Emotional intelligence and its predictive power in Iranian foreign language learners’ language achievement.Social Science and Humanity, 5, 1-5. Retrieved from http://www.ipedr.com/vol5/no2/1-H10056.pdf

Singh, D. (2003). Emotional intelligence at work: A professional guide (2nd ed.). New Delhi: Response Books.

Smith, M. K. (2002). Howard gardner and multiple intelligences. The Encyclopedia of Informal Education. Retrieved from http://www.infed.org/thinkers/gardner.htm

Snyder, C. R., & Lopez, S. J. (2002). Handbook of positive psychology. USA: Oxford University Press.

Thorndike, R. K. (1920). Intelligence and its uses. Harper’s Magazine, 140, 227-335.

Walker, M. E. B. (2006). Emotional intelligence and academic success in college (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). The University of Southern Mississippi, Mississippi. Retrieved from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database.

Yılmaz, S. (2007). Duygusalzekaveakademikbaşarıarasindakiilişki (Unpublished master’s thesis). Atatürk University, Erzurum. Retrieved from www. tez2.yok.gov.tr

Young, D. J. (1991). Creating a low-anxiety classroom environment: What does language anxiety research suggest? The Modern Language Journal, 75, 426-439.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3968%2Fj.sll.1923156320140801.4262


  • There are currently no refbacks.


If you have already registered in Journal A and plan to submit article(s) to Journal B, please click the CATEGORIES, or JOURNALS A-Z on the right side of the "HOME".

We only use three mailboxes as follows to deal with issues about paper acceptance, payment and submission of electronic versions of our journals to databases: caooc@hotmail.com; sll@cscanada.net; sll@cscanada.org

Copyright © 2010 Canadian Academy of Oriental and Occidental Culture
Address: 730, 77e AV, Laval, Quebec, H7V 4A8, Canada

Telephone: 1-514-558 6138
E-mail: office@cscanada.net; office@cscanada.org; caooc@hotmail.com