The Historical Replacement and Causing of the Second Personal Pronouns RU(汝) & ER(尔)

Hongyi GUO


The second personal pronouns RU(汝) & ER(尔) appeared frequently in ancient Chinese. When did they appear? And how did they complete their rise and fall in ancient Chinese? Taking bronze inscriptions, Jin Wen Shangshu and the Book of Songs as examples, this paper has sorted out the clues of the rise and fall in the history of the second personal pronouns - RU(汝) & ER(尔), and intends to reveal the causing of their rise and fall.


RU(汝); ER(尔); Historical Replacement

Full Text:



Qian, Z. W. (2004). Study on the grammar of Jinwen Shangshu. Beijing, China: Commercial Press.

Wang, L. (1985). The draft of the history of Chinese language. Beijing, China: Zhong Hua Press.

Yi, M. C. (2005). The grammar in the Pre-Qin period. Beijing, China: Commercial Press.



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