Do Self Esteem and Family Relations Predict Prosocial Behaviour and Social Adjustment of Fresh Students?
Most of the studies about prosocial behaviour and adolescent adjustment focus on some personality factors or peer group influence as separate sources of influence and do not take into account some important variables like self esteem and family relations. The aim of this paper is therefore to analyse the relationship between self esteem and family relations of a sample of Nigerian undergraduates as indicated by their prosocial behaviour and social adjustment. To achieve this, 294 fresh students who have spent at least 30 weeks in the university were randomly selected (using cross-sectional sampling method) from both Ambrose Alli and Adekunle Ajasin universities in Nigeria. Out of these were 161 (54.8%) males while 133 (45.2%) were females. Two hypotheses were stated and tested. Results revealed that self esteem and family relations independently predicted prosocial behaviour. Their joint prediction of prosocial behaviour was also significant [R2= .279, t = 9.07; p < .01]. Analysis of the second hypothesis also revealed that self-esteem independently predicted social adjustment but family relations did not predict social adjustment significantly. However, self-esteem and family relation jointly predicted social adjustment [R2= .384, t = 7.972; p < .01]. It was recommended that efforts to boost the new students’ self-esteem should not be spared and the relationship between family members should be cordial so as improve the level of prosocial behavior and social adjustment of individuals.
Afolabi, O. A. (2013). Roles of personality types, emotional intelligence and gender differences on prosocial behavior. Psychological Thought, 6(1), 124-139. doi:10.5964/psyct.v6i1.53
Amato, P., & Keith, B. (1991). Parental divorce and the well-being of children. Psychological Bulletin, 110, 26–46.
Bowlby, J. (1988). A secure base: Parent-child attachment and healthy human development. New York, NY: Basic Books.
Boxer, P., Tisak, M. S., & Goldstein, S. E. (2004). Is it bad to be good? An exploration of aggressive and prosocial behavior subtypes in adolescence. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 33, 91-100. Bryce, J., Anderson, M., Frigo, T., & McKenzie, P. (2007). Australian young people, their families and post-school plans: A research review. Australian Council for Educational Research. Retrieved online on June 10 from http://www.thesmithfamily.com.au/~/media/Files/Research%20and%20Advocacy%20PDFs/Research%20and%20Evaluation%20archive%20PDFs/australian-young-people-2007.ashx
Call, K. T., Mortimer, J. T., & Shanahan, M. J. (1995). Helpfulness and the development of competence in adolescence. Child Development, 66, 129-138.
Deepshikha, S., & Bhanot, S. (2011). Role of family environment on socio-emotional adjustment of adolescent girls in rural areas of Eastern Uttar Pradesh. Journal of Psychology, 2(1), 53-56.
DuBois, D. L., Bull, C. A., Sherman, M. D., & Roberts, M. (1998). Self-esteem and adjustment in early adolescence: A social-contextual perspective. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 27, 557–583.
Dunn, J., Deater-Deckard, K., Pickering, K., O’Connor, T. G., Golding, J., & the ALSPAC Study Team. (1998). Children’s adjustment and prosocial behaviour in step-, single-parent, and non-stepfamily settings: Findings from a community study. Journal of Child Psychologyand Psychiatry, 39, 1083-1095. Retrieved online on April 8, 2014 from http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=10641
Eisenberg, N., & Fabes, R. A. (1995). The relation of young children’s vicarious emotional responding to social competence, regulation, and emotionality. Cognition and Emotion, 9, 203-229
Eisenberg, N., & Fabes, R. (1998). Prosocial development. In W. Damon & N. Eisenberg (Ed.), Handbook of child psychology (Vol. 3). Social, emotional, and personality development (5th ed., pp.701-778). New York: Wiley.
Eisenberg, N., Fabes, R. A., & Spinrad, T. (2006). Prosocial development. In N. Eisenberg (Ed.), Handbook of child psychology: Social emotional, and personality development (6th ed., Vol. 3, pp.646–718). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
Fischer, C. B., Wallace, S. A., & Fenton, R. E. (2000). Discrimination distress during adolescence. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 29, 679–695.
Friedlander, L. J., Reid, G. J., Shupak, N., & Cribbie, R. (2007). Social support, self-esteem and stress as predictors of adjustment to university among first -year undergraduates. Journal of College Student Development, 46(3), 223-236.
Gaskin, K. (2004). The effects of youth volunteering: An overview of the research. Retrieved online on March 27, 2014 from http://www.youthmusic.org.uk/assets/files/Research/YM_YouthVolunteering_web_2.pdf
Gray, K. L. (2011). Effects of parent-child attachment on social adjustment and friendship in young adulthood. Retrieved online on April 6, 2013 from http://digitalcommons.calpoly.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1027&context=psycdsp
Haggberg, M. (1992). Why donors give. Fund Raising
Management, 23(2), 39-40.
Hart, D., Atkins, R., & Ford, D. (1998). Urban America as a context for the development of moral identity in adolescence. Journal of Social Issues, 54, 513-530.
Hudson, W. W. (1982). Index of family relations. The clinical measurement package: A field manual. Chicago: Dorsey Press.
Huebner, A. J., & Mancini, J. A. (2003). Shaping structured out-ofschool time use among youth:The effects of self, family, and friend systems. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 32, 453-463.
Kostogianni, N., & Andronikof, A. (2009). Self-esteem, self-centeredness and social-emotional adjustment of gifted children and adolescents. Retrieved online on January 7, 2014 fromhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19853713
Laibe, D. J., Carlo, G., & Roesch, S. C. (2004). Pathways to self esteem in late adolescence: The role of parent and peer attachment, empathy and social behaviours. Faculty Publications, Department of Psychology, Paper 315. Retrieved online on December 12, 2013 fromhttp://digitalcommons.unl.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1314&context=psychfacpub
Larrieu, J., & Mussen, P. (1986). Some personality and motivational correlates of children’s prosocial behavior. Journal of Genetic Psychology, 147, 529–542.
Lee, S. Y. (2012). The mediating effect of self-esteem and learning attitude on the relationship between middle school students’ perceived parenting style and school life adjustment. International Journal of Social Sciences and Humanity Studies, 4(1), 389-398.
Lee, L., Morrell, G., Marini, A., & Smith, S. (2010). Barriers and facilitators to pro-social behaviour among young people: A review of existing evidence. A research report by the Department of Education commissioned before the new UK Government. Retrieved online on April 11, 2014 from https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/183475/DFE-RR188.pdf
Lichter, D. T., Shanahan, M. J., & Gardner, E. L. (2002). Helping others? The effects of childhood poverty and family instability on prosocial behavior. Youth & Society, 34, 89-119.
Lipschitz-Elhawi, R. & Itzhaky, H. (2005). Social support, mastery, self-esteem and individual adjustment among at-risk youth. Child and Youth Care Forum, 34 (5), 329-346.
Low, N., Butt, S., Ellis, P.A. & Smith, D. J. (2007). Helping out: a national survey of volunteering and charitable giving (Cabinet Office: London). Retrieved online on February 12, 2014 from http://www.ivr.org.uk/Institute+of+Volunteering+Research%2fMigrated+Resources%2fDocuments%2fH%2fOTS_Helping_Out.pdf
Matthews, W. (1998). Self esteem, family and consumer sciences. Retrieved online on April 29, 2014 from http://www.ces.ncsu.edu/depts/fcs/Parent%20Ed/self_esteem.htm.
Mathur, A. (1996). Older adults’ motivations for gift giving to charitable organizations: An exchange theory perspective. Psychology & Marketing, 13(1), 107-123. Mckay, D., & Fanning, N. (1998). Evaluation of cognitive behaviour therapy. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 45, 56-60.
Mousavi, S. H. (2012). Evaluation and comparison of individual and group sports in the social adjustment of students. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 2(1), 274-277.
Myers, D. G. (1996). Social Psychology (5th ed.). USA: McGraw-Hill.
Osarenren, N., & Ajaero, I. (2013). Effects of two treatment methods on self-esteem and family relationship of victims of sibling maltreatment among junior students in Lagos State. Research Journal in Organizational Psychology & Educational Studies, 2(3), 93-100.
Ozcinar, Z. (2006). The instructional communicative qualificiation of parents with students. Cypriot Journal of Educational Sciences, 1, 24-30.
Parade, S. H., Leerkes, E. M., & Blankson, A. (2010). Attachment to parents, social anxiety, and close relationships of female students over the transition to college. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 39(2), 127-137. doi:10.1007/s10964-009-9396-x
Rautopuro, J., & Vaisanen, P. (2001, September 5-8). Non-traditional students at university: A followup study of young and adult students’ orientations, satisfaction and learning outcomes. Paper presented at the European Conference on Educational Research, Lille.
Rehberg, H. R., & Richman, C. L. (1989). Prosocial behaviour in preschool children: A look at the interaction of race, gender and family composition. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 12, 385-401.
Rosenberg, M. (1965). Society and the adolescent self-image. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Rossi, A. S. (2001). Caring and doing for others: Social responsibility in the domains of family work and community. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Rubin, K.W., Bukowski, W., & Parker, J. G. (2006). Peer interactions, relationships and groups. In W. Damon & N. Eisenberg (Eds.), Handbook of child psychology (5th ed, Vol. 3, pp.619-700). New York: Wiley.
Shaver, P., Hazan, C., & Bradshaw, D. (1988). Love as attachment. In R. J. Sternberg & M. L.Barnes (Eds.), The psychology of love (pp. 68-99). New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Sil, J. H. (2009). The influence of attachment to mother and school life adjustments on elementary school students’s optimism. Unpublished master’s thesis. Dankook University.
So, S. S., Song, M. K., & Kim, C. S. (2010). The effects of perceived parenting behavior and school adjustment on the depression of early adolescent. Korean Journal of Youth Studies, 17(3), 1-23.
Spinrad, T. L., Eisenberg, N., Cumberland, A., Fabes, R. A., Valiente, C., Shepard, S. A., … Guthrie, I. K. (2006). Relation of emotion-related regulation to children's social competence: A longitudinal study. Emotion, 6(3), 498-510. doi: 10.1037/1528-3522.214.171.1248
Taiwo, D.E. (2012). Influence of self esteem and gender on prosocial behavior of students in Akungba. An unpublished B. Sc project. Adekunle Ajasin University, Nigeria.
Trommsdorff, G., & Kornadt, H. J. (2003). Parent-child relations in cross-cultural perspective. In L. Kuczynski (Ed.), Handbook of dynamics in parent-child relations (pp.271-306). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Weissbrod, C. S. (1976). Noncontingent warmth induction, cognitive style, and children’s imitative donation and rescue effort behaviors. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 34, 274-281.
Weymans, V. (2010). Psychological predictors for prosocial behavior. A large-scale survey in Flanders. An unpublished M. Sc project. Universiteit Gent.
Zaff, J. F., Moore, K. A,. Papillo, A. R., & Williams, S. (2003). Implications of extracurricular activity participation during adolescence on positive outcomes. Journal of Adolesceizt Research, 18, 599-630.
- There are currently no refbacks.
If you have already registered in Journal A and plan to submit article(s) to Journal B, please click the CATEGORIES, or JOURNALS A-Z on the right side of the "HOME".
We only use three mailboxes as follows to deal with issues about paper acceptance, payment and submission of electronic versions of our journals to databases:
firstname.lastname@example.org; email@example.com; firstname.lastname@example.org
Copyright © 2010 Canadian Research & Development Center of Sciences and Cultures
Address: 730, 77e AV, Laval, Quebec, H7V 4A8, Canada
Telephone: 1-514-558 6138