The Relationship Between Years of Schooling and the Forms of Social Capital: A Study Conducted in an Urban Area, Under Sylhet City
Education and social capital have great contribution to the development. The main endeavor of this article divulges the connection between individual’s years of schooling and their social networks, social norms, civic participation, cooperation and social trust as social capital. To find out the relationship between individual’s years of schooling and their social capital descriptive research design has been followed. Mix-method approach -- Social survey technique and Focused Group Discussion (FGD) -- has been applied for collecting data from study area. To analyze the collected data, Likert Scale, Human Development Index (HDI) and the Spearman’s rho correlation were calculated. Hypotheses have been formulated and tested in congruence with the objectives of the study. From the study, it is found that, positive relation exists between years of schooling and various components of social capital. It also signifies that, educated people have more social network and they maintain the social norms. On the contrary, they have low trust on their neighbors and are less cooperative to them too. It is also revealed, Social Networks Index is more superior over other elements of Social Capital i.e. 0.749 (social network) > 0.671 (social norms) > 0.658 (civic participation) > 0.584 (social Cooperation) > 0.425 (social trust). In conclusion, individual’s years of schooling influenced their social capital but variety of relation exists there because of the influence of others variable.
Key words: Years of schooling; Social capital; Social networks; Social norms; Civic participation; Cooperation; Social trust
Akcapar, S. K. (2010). Re-Thinking Migrants Network and Social Capital: A Case Study of Iraniansin, International migration, 48(2), 133-195.
Alesina, A. and La, F. E. (2000). Participation in Heterogeneous Community. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 115(3), 847-904.
Becker, G. S. (1964). Human Capital: A Theoretical and Empirical Analysis, with Special Reference to Education. New York: Columbia University Press.
Bourdieu, P. (1983). Forms of Capital. In J. C. Richards (Ed.). Handbook of Theory and Research for the Sociology of Education. New York: Greenwood Press
Chalupnicek, P. (2010). The Capital in Social: An Austrian Perspective. The American Journal of Economics and Sociology, 69(4), 1230-1250.
Cogan, J. J. & P. Morris. (2001).The development of Civic Values: An Overview. International Journal of Educational Research, 35(1), 1-19.
Coleman, J. (1990). Foundation of Social theory Cambridge. MA: Harvard University Press.
Dee, T.S. (2003). Are There Civic Returns to Education? CIRCLE Working Paper, 08,1-16.
Denny, K. (2003-07). The Effects of Human Capital on Social Capital: A Cross-Country Analysis. UCD Centre for Economic Research Working Paper Series, 03(180), 1-15.
Fukuyama, F. (2002). Social Capital and Development: The Coming Agenda. Johns Hopkins University Press, 22(1), 22.
Glaeser, Edward L., Laibson, D., Scheinkman, Josem, A. & Scoutter Christine L. (1999). What Is Social Capital, the Determinants of Trust and Trustworthiness. NBER Working Paper, 7216.
Garip, F. (2008). Social Capital and Migration: How Do Similar Resources Lead to Divergent Outcomes? Demography, 45(3), 591-617.
Godowin, M. & Quisumbing, A. R. (2008), Separate but Equal? The Gendered Nature of Social Capital in Rural Philippine Communities. Journal of International Development, 20(1), 13-52.
Hauser, S. (2000). Education, Ability and Civic Engagement in the Contemporary US. Social Science Research, 29(2), 453-476.
Haque A. K. I. (2007). Better Relationships Enhanced Development: The Role of Social Capital and Community Based Organizations in Development for Rural Bangladesh. Centre for East and South-East Asian Studies.
Helliwell, J.F. And Putnam, R.D. (2007). Education and Social Capital. Eastern Economic Journal, 33(1), 1-18.
Islam M. N. (2011). An Introduction to Research Methods (2nd ed.). Kamrul Hasan Mullick, Dhaka.
James E. B., Joe W. K., Chadwick C. H. (2001). Organizational Research: Determining Appropriate Sample Size in Survey Research. Information Technology, Learning, and Performance Journal, 19(1), 324-345.
Jian, H., Maassen Van Den Brink H., Groot W. (2007). A Meta-Analysis of the Effects of Education on Social Capital. Scholar Research Center.
Katungi, K., Edmeaders, S. & Smale, M. (2008). Gender, Social Capital and Information Exchange in Rural Uganda. Journal of International Development, 35-52.
Khan M.S.U., Sobhani F. A., Ali M. H. (2005). Social Capital: A Multi-Dimensional Approach of Socioeconomic Development. Pakistan Journal of Social Sciences, 3(1), 124-128.
Kirori, G. N; Nganga, T. W. K.; Mariara, J. W. K. ; Mwabu, G. (2009). Impacts of Social Capital on Household Consumption Expenditure in Rural Kenya. Regional Development Studies, 13(1), 1-16.
Klvanova, R. (2010). Moving Through Social Networks: The Case of Armenian Migrants in the Czech Republic. International Migration, 48(2), 103-132.
Kothari C. R. (2010). Research Methodology -- Methods and Techniques. (2nd ed.). New Age International (P) Limited.
Krishna, A. (2007). How Does Social Capital Grow - A Seven Years Study of Villages in India. The Journal of Politics, 69(4), 941-956.
Li, Y.; Savage,M.; & Warde, A. (2008). Social Mobility and Social Capital in Contemporary Britain. The British Journal of Sociology, 59(3), 321-342.
Marshal G. (2009) .Oxford Dictionary of Sociology (4th ed.). Oxford University Press.
Mathbor, G. M. (2007). Enhancement of Community Preparedness for Natural Disasters: The Role of Social Work in Building Social Capital for Sustainable Disaster Relief and Management. International Social Work, 50(3), 357-369.
Milligan, K., Moretti, E. And Oreopoulos, P. (2008). Does Education Affect Trust-Evidence from Russia. International Society for New Institutional Economics, 3(2),1-20.
Misati, L. (2008). Social Capital and User-Owned Microfinance Organizations: Savings, Loans and Associational Life in Roscas and Ascas. Regional Development Studies, 12(1), 21-39.
Moretti, E. (2004). Estimating the Social Return to Higher Education. Journal of Econometrics, 14(3), 175-212.
Nie, Norman H., Jane Junn & Kenneth, Stehlik-Bany. (1996). Education and Democratic Citizenship in America. University of Chicago Press.
Pathirage, J. (2011). Capitalizing Social Networks: Sri Lankan Migration to Italy. Ethnography. 12(3), 315-333.
Putnam, R.D. (1995). Bowling Alone: America’s Declining Social Capital. The Journal of Democracy, 6(1), 65-78.
Rahman, M., Roy, M. K. (2011). Role of Social Capital in Governance of Gram Committee: The Case of Participatory Rural Development Project in Bangladesh. Independent Business Review, 4(1), 78-124.
Roberts K. (2009). Key Concepts in Sociology. Palgrave Macmillan.
Smith, M. H., Beaulev, L. J., Isreal, G. D. (1992). Effects of Human Capital and Social Capital on Dropping out of High School in the South. Journal of Research in Rural Education, 9(1), 75-87.
Smith, M. K. (2009). Social Capital: the Encyclopedia of Informal Education. Infed Publication.
Smith; T. (2006). Why Social Capital Subverts Institution Building in Risky Settings. Qualitative Sociology, 29, 317-333.
Svendsen G. T (2000). Social Capital: A Standard Method of Measurement. Edward Elgar, Cheltenham, Uk.
Trigilia, C. (2001). Social Capital and Local Development. European Journal of Social Theory, 4(4), 43-87.
Trochim W. M. K. ph D (2006). Research Methods (2nd ed.). Himel Impressions, New Delhi.
Uddin, R. (2012). Hegemonic Sway in English Language Learning. Cited Unpublished Manuscript.
Zadeh,B.S.; Ahmad, N., Abdullah S. N. S.; & Abdullah, H. (2010). The Social Capacity to Development a Community. Current Research Journal of Social Sciences, 2(2), 110-113.
- There are currently no refbacks.
How to do online submission to another Journal?
If you have already registered in Journal A, then how can you submit another article to Journal B? It takes two steps to make it happen:
1. Register yourself in Journal B as an Author
Find the journal you want to submit to in CATEGORIES, click on “VIEW JOURNAL”, “Online Submissions”, “GO TO LOGIN” and “Edit My Profile”. Check “Author” on the “Edit Profile” page, then “Save”.
Go to “User Home”, and click on “Author” under the name of Journal B. You may start a New Submission by clicking on “CLICK HERE”.
We only use three mailboxes as follows to deal with issues about paper acceptance, payment and submission of electronic versions of our journals to databases:
firstname.lastname@example.org; email@example.com; firstname.lastname@example.org
Copyright © 2010 Canadian Research & Development Centre of Sciences and Cultures
Address: 730, 77e AV, Laval, Quebec, H7V 4A8, Canada
Telephone: 1-514-558 6138