Toward a Determination of Adolescent Age-Graded Differences in Predictors of Cigarette Initiation

Rebecca J. Howell


The study provided a systematic appraisal of predictors of cigarette initiation among American youth, in an effort to identify age-specific differences in factors emanating from the five ecological domains of influence. Using a rigorous inclusion criteria and standardized analytic techniques, investigated were 200 directional effects culled from 19 studies published between 1970 and 2007. Cigarette initiation during early adolescence has been investigated most often, as have familial-related, social learning constructs. Clear evidence was obtained for the age-specific effects of seven predictors: poor school performance, step-parent family, peer pro-cigarette norms, depression, low cigarette refusal self-efficacy, and frequent alcohol use. Suggestions for future research are indicated. Keywords: predictors; cigarette initiation; inclusion criteria; standardized analytic techniques

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