Request Strategies by Second Language Learners of English: Pre- and Post-head Act Strategies
This study investigates the speech act of request by Saudi high- and low-level learners of Australian English. All participants were asked to take part in three different role plays, which varied according to the relative power relationship between the informant and the conductor. We found that high-level learners did not considerably differ from low-level learners in terms of pre- and post-head act strategies, and request strategies; thereby indicating that proficiency level does not have a significant impact on L2 learners’ choice of pre- and post-head act strategies and request strategies. However, both groups of learners deviated from Australian English native speakers in terms of post-head act and request strategies. In light of the social variable (power) influence, it was found that power affected both groups of learners, along with the native speaking group, in terms of pre- and post-head act strategies. However, power did not have an impact on the SLL group, while it did have an effect on the high-level group, along with the native speaking group, in terms of request strategies. Thus, there is no apparent correlation between the social variable (power) and L2 learners’ use of pre- and post-head act strategies, while power positively correlates with L2 learners’ proficiency level regarding their use of request strategies.
Key words: Interlanguage pragmatics; Speech act of requests; L2 learners
Achiba, M. (2003). Learning to Request in a Second Language: Child Interlanguage Pragmatics. Clevedon, England: Multilingual Matters.
Austin, J. L. (1962). How to Do Things With Words. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Bardovi-Harlig, K. (1999). The Interlanguage of Interlanguage Pragmatics: A Research Agenda for Acquisitional Pragmatics. Language Learning, 49(4), 677-713.
Blum-Kulka, S (1987). Indirectness and Politeness in Requests: Same or Different? Journal of Pragmatics, 11(2), 131-146.
Blum-Kulka, S. (1989). Playing it Safe: The Role of Cconventionality on Indirectness. In S. Blum-Kulka, J. House & G. Kasper (Eds.), Cross-Cultural Pragmatics: Requests And Apologies (pp. 37-70). Norwood, NJ: Ablex.
Blum-Kulka, S., House, J., & Kasper, G. (Eds.). (1989). Cross-Cultural Pragmatics: Requests and Apologies. Norwood, New Jersey: Ablex.
Brown, P., & Levinson, S. D. (1987). Politeness: Some Universals in Language Usage. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Byon, A. S. (2004). Sociopragmatic Analysis Korean Requests: Pedagogical Settings. Journal of Pragmatics, 36(9), 1673-1704.
Clark, H. H. (1979). Responding to Indirect Speech Acts. Cognitive Psychology, 11(4), 430-477.
Ellis, R. (1992). Learning to Communicate in the Classroom. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 14(1), 1-23.
Faerch, C., & Kasper, G. (1989). Internal and External Modification in Interlanguage Request Realization. In S. Blum-Kulka, J. House & G. Kasper (Eds.), Cross-Cultural Pragmatics: Requests And Apologies (pp.221-247). Norwood, New Jersey: Ablex.
Gu, Y. (1990). Politeness in Modern Chinese. Journal of Pragmatics, 14(2), 237-257.
Hassall, T. (2003). Requests by Australian Learners of Indonesian. Journal of Pragmatics, 35(12), 1903-1928.
Hill, T. (1997). The Development of Pragmatic Competence in an EFL Context. (Unpublished doctoral Dissertation). Temple University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
Holtgraves, T. (1986). Language Structure in Social Interaction: Perceptions of Direct and Indirect Speech Acts and Interactants who Use Them. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51(2), 305-313.
House, J., & Kasper, G. (1981). Politeness Markers in English and German. In F. Coulmas (Ed.), Conversational Routine: Explorations in Standardized Communication Situations and Prepatterned Speech (pp. 157-185). The Hague: Mouton.
Hudson, T., Detmer, E., & Brown, J. (1995). Developing Prototypic Measures of Cross-Cultural Pragmatics. Second Language Teaching and Curriculum Center, University of Hawaii, Honolulu.
Kasper, G. (1989). Variation in Interlanguage Speech Act Realization. In S. Gass, C. Madden, D. Preston & L. Selinker (Eds.), Variation in Second Language Acquisition: Discourse and Pragmatics (pp. 37-58). Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
Kasper, G., & Dahl, M. (1991). Research Methods in Interlanguage Pragmatics. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 13(2), 215-247.
Kasper, G., & Rose, K. R. (1999). Pragmatics and Second Language Acquisition. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 19, 81-104.
Kasper, G., & Rose, K. R. (2002). Pragmatic Development in a Second Language. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Kasper, G., & Schmidt, R. (1996). Developmental Issues in Interlanguage Pragmatics. Studies on Second Language Acquisition, 18(2), 149-169.
Klein-Braley, C. (1997). C-Tests in the Context of Reduced Redundancy Testing: An Appraisal. Language Testing, 14(1), 47-84.
Mackey, A., & Gass, S. (2005). Second Language Research: Methodology and Design. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Nwoye, O. (1992). Linguistic Politeness and Socio-Cultural Variations of the Notion of Face. Journal of Pragmatics, 18(4), 309-328.
Rose, K. R. (2000). An Exploratory Cross-Sectional Study on Interlanguage Pragmatic Development. Studies on Second Language acquisition, 22(1), 27-67.
Rose, K. R. (2009). Interlanguage Pragmatic Development in Hong Kong, Phase 2. Journal of Pragmatics 41(11), 2345-2364.
Rintell, E., & Mitchell, C. J. (1989). Studying Requests and Apologies: An Inquiry Into Method. In S. Blum-Kulka, J. House & G. Kasper (Eds.), Cross-Cultural Pragmatics: Requests and Apologies (pp. 248-272). Norwood, New Jersey: Ablex.
Ruzickova, E. (2007). Strong and Mild Requestive Hints and Positive-Face Redress in Cuban Spanish. Journal of Pragmatics, 39(6), 1170-1202.
Scarcella, R. C. (1979). On Speaking Politely in a Second Language. In C. A. Yorio, K. Perkins & J. Schachter (Eds.), On TESOL ‘79 (pp. 275-287). Washington, DC: TESOL.
Schmidt, R. (1983). Interaction, Acculturation and the Acquisition of Communicative Competence. In N. Wolfson & E. Judd (Eds.), Sociolinguistics and Second Language Acquisition (pp. 137-174). Massachusetts: Newbury House.
Searle, J. R. (1969). Speech Acts. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Stemmer, B. (1994). A Pragmatic Approach to Neurolinguistics: Requests (Re)considered. Brain and Language, 46(4), 565-591.
Trosborg, A. (1995). Interlanguage Pragmatics: Requests, Complaints and Apologies. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
Walters, J. (1979). The Perception of Politeness in English and Spanish. In C. Yorio, K. Peters & J. Schachter (Eds.), On TESOL ‘79 (pp. 288-296). Washington DC: TESOL.
Weizman, E. (1989). Requestive Hints. In S. Blum-Kulka, J. House, & G. Kasper (Eds.), Cross-Cultural Pragmatics: Requests and Apologies (pp. 71-95). Norwood, NJ: Ablex.
- There are currently no refbacks.
How to do online submission to another Journal?
If you have already registered in Journal A, then how can you submit another article to Journal B? It takes two steps to make it happen:
1. Register yourself in Journal B as an Author
Find the journal you want to submit to in CATEGORIES, click on “VIEW JOURNAL”, “Online Submissions”, “GO TO LOGIN” and “Edit My Profile”. Check “Author” on the “Edit Profile” page, then “Save”.
Go to “User Home”, and click on “Author” under the name of Journal B. You may start a New Submission by clicking on “CLICK HERE”.
We only use three mailboxes as follows to deal with issues about paper acceptance, payment and submission of electronic versions of our journals to databases: firstname.lastname@example.org; email@example.com; firstname.lastname@example.org
Copyright © 2010 Canadian Academy of Oriental and Occidental Culture
Address: 9375 Rue de Roissy Brossard, Québec, J4X 3A1, Canada
Telephone: 1-514-558 6138
E-mail: email@example.com; firstname.lastname@example.org; email@example.com