Patterns of Identity Loss in Trans-Cultural Contact Situations Between Bantu and Khoesan Groups in Western Botswana

Herman M. BATIBO

Abstract


According to Lamy (1979) and Pool (1979), ethnic identity comprises four distinctive features, namely linguistic identity, cultural identity, autonymic identity and ethnonymic identity. When an ethnic group is losing its identity because of pressure or attraction from a major or dominant ethnic group in a marked bilingualism situation (Batibo, 1992, 2005), the loss is usually progressive, starting from linguistic identity and ending with ethnonymic identity. Although this pattern has been attested in a number of cases, particularly in trans-cultural situations, there have been several
exceptions.
This paper is based on a study which investigated the patterns of ethnic identity loss in western Botswana, Southern Africa, which is both linguistically and culturally complex, due to the co-existence of Bantu and Khoesan groups. The study showed that the ethnic identity loss model can be distorted, where there are factors that have strong impact on people’s lives in terms of fundamental human needs. Also, strong external socio-political pressure, such as restrictions and group domination may contribute to this situation.


Keywords


Ethnic identity; minority language; Language shift; Autonymic identity; Ethnonymic identity; Trans-cultural relations

Full Text:

PDF

References


Andersen, L.-G., & Janson, T. (1997). Languages in Botswana: Language Ecology in Southern Africa. Longman Botswana

Auburger, L. (1990). Linguistic minority relations. Sociolingaistica, 4, 169-192.

Batibo, H. M. (1992). The fate of ethnic languages in Tanzania. In M. Brenzinger (Ed.), Language death: Factual and Theoretical Explorations with Special Reference to East Africa. (Chapter 7, pp.85-98). Mouton de Gruyter.

Batibo, He. M. (2005). Language decline and death in Africa: Causes, consequences and challenges. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.

Batibo, H. M. (2010). Taking the best from both worlds: Integration and identity among the Khoesan speakers of Botswana. In M. Brenzinger & C. Koenig (Eds.), The Proceedings of the first Khoesan language and linguistics symposium (pp.284-295). Held at Riezlern, Germany, from 4th to 8th January 2003. Cologne: Ruediger Koeppe Verlag.

Batibo, H. M., Mathangwane, J. T., & Tsonope, J. (2003). The Third language teaching project. Gaborone: Associated Publishers.

Batibo, H. M., & Tsonope, J. (2000). Language vitality among the Nama of Tsabong. In H. M. Batibo & J. Tsonope (Eds.), The state of Khoesan language in Botswana (pp.9-21). Gaborone: Tasalls Publishing and Books.

Bhugra, D. (2004). Migration, distress and cultural identity. British Medical Bulletin, 69(1), 129-141.

Botswana Statistical Bureau. (2001). Botswana national census, 2002. Gaborone: Botswana Government Printers.

Chebanne, A., & Nthapelelang, M. (2000). The socio-linguistic survey of the Eastern Khoe in Boteti and Makgadikgadi pans area of Botswana. In H. Batibo & B. Smieja (Eds.), Botswana: The future of the minority languages (pp.79-94). Frankfurt/Main: Peter Lang.

Hofstede, G. (1984). The cultural relativity of the quality of life concept. Academy of Management Review, 9(3), 389-398.

Gadibolae, M. N. (1993). Serfdom (Bolatla) in the Nata Area (1929-1960). M. A. Dissertation, University of Botswana.

Janson, T. (1995). The status, history and future of Shekgalagari. In A. Traill, R. Vossen & M. Bisele (Eds.), Linguistics papers in memory of Patrick J. Dikens (pp.77-89). Cologne: Ruediger Koeppe.

Lamy, P. (1979). Language and ethnolinguistic identity: The bilingualism question. International Journal of the Sociology of Language, 20, 23-36

Lukusa, S. T. M. (2000). The Shekgalagari struggle for survival: Aspects of language maintenance and shift. In H. M Batibo & B. Smieja (Eds.), Botswana: The Future of the Minority Languages (pp. 55-78). Frankfurt: Peter Lang.

Maslow, A. H. (1943). A theory of human motivation. Psychological Review, 50(4), 370-396.

Maslow, A. H. (1954). Motivation and personality. New York, NY: Harper

Mautle, G. (1986). Bakgalagadi-Bakwena relationship: A case of slavery, c. 1840–c 1930. Botswana Notes and Records, 18, 19-31.

Mestrie, R. (2002). Language shift, cultural change and identity retention: Indian South Africans in the 1960 and beyond. South African Historical Journal, 57, 134-152.

Molosiwa, A. (2000). Deculturalization and Language shift among the Otjiherero-Mbanderu speakers of Tsabong. In H. M. Batibo & B. Smieja (Eds.), Botswana: The future of the minority languages (pp.177-192). Frankfurt: Peter Lang.

Monaka, K. (2014). Historical and linguistic perspectives of Shekgalagari language. Lonaka: Journal of Learning and Teaching, 1-12.

Nhlekisana, R. O. B. (2007). Traditional puberty rites among the !Xóõ language speakers of Zutshwa (Ms).(fill press)

Nyati-Ramahobo, L. (2000). Linguistic and cultural domination: The case of the Wayeyi of Botswana. In H. M. Batibo & B. Smieja (Eds.), Botswana: The future of the minority languages (pp.217-234). Frankpurt: Peter Lang

Pool, J. (1979). Language planning and identity planning. International Journal of the Sociology of Language, 20, 5-25.

Saugestad, S. (2004). The indigenous peoples of Southern Africa: An overview. In D. Vinding, & R. Hitchcock (eds.), Indigenous Peoples’ Rights in Southern Africa. Copenhagen: INGIA Document No. 10

Smieja, B. (1996). Language and identity: Language shift and language loyalty in Botswana. A paper presented at NIR Staff seminar on 13th December 1996. University of Botswana (Ms).

Smieja, B. (2003). Language Pluralism in Botswana: Hope or Hurdle? Frankfurt: Peter Lang

Thompson, R. H. (1989). Theories of Ethnicity: A Critical Appraisal. New York: Greenwood

Visser, H. (2000). Language and cultural empowerment of the Khoesan people: The Naro experience. In H. M. Batibo and B. Smieja (eds.), Botswana: The Future of the Minority Languages. pp. 193-215. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3968/n

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c)




Share us to:   


Reminder

How to do online submission to another Journal?

If you have already registered in Journal A, then how can you submit another article to Journal B? It takes two steps to make it happen:

1. Register yourself in Journal B as an Author

Find the journal you want to submit to in CATEGORIES, click on “VIEW JOURNAL”, “Online Submissions”, “GO TO LOGIN” and “Edit My Profile”. Check “Author” on the “Edit Profile” page, then “Save”.

2. Submission

Go to “User Home”, and click on “Author” under the name of Journal B. You may start a New Submission by clicking on “CLICK HERE”.


We only use three mailboxes as follows to deal with issues about paper acceptance, payment and submission of electronic versions of our journals to databases: caooc@hotmail.com; sll@cscanada.net; sll@cscanada.org

 Articles published in Studies in Literature and Language are licensed under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 (CC-BY).

 STUDIES IN LITERATURE AND LANGUAGE Editorial Office

Address: 1020 Bouvier Street, Suite 400, Quebec City, Quebec, G2K 0K9, Canada. 
Telephone: 1-514-558 6138 
Website: Http://www.cscanada.net; Http://www.cscanada.org 
E-mailoffice@cscanada.net; office@cscanada.org; caooc@hotmail.com

Copyright © 2010 Canadian Academy of Oriental and Occidental Culture