A Contrastive Analysis of Pre-Service and In-Service EFL Teachers’ Levels of Technological, Pedagogical, and Content Knowledge

Alnujaidi Sulaiman


This study attempted to investigate pre-service and in-service EFL teachers’ levels of knowledge in content, pedagogy, and technology in relation to their gender, Internet access at school, and technology training in Saudi Arabia. The Technological, Pedagogical, and Content Knowledge (TPACK) framework was utilized to (1) examine pre-service and in-service EFL teachers’ levels of TPACK; (2) investigate the differences between pre-service and in-service EFL teachers’ levels of TPACK; (3) scrutinize whether gender, Internet access at school, and technology training had any significant effect on pre-service EFL teachers’ levels of TPACK; and (4) analyze whether gender, Internet access at school, and technology training had any significant effect on in-service EFL teachers’ levels of TPACK. The participants in this study were (111) EFL pre-service teachers and (106) EFL in-service teachers. The descriptive statistical analysis (mean and standard deviation) revealed that the pre-service teachers’ overall level of TPACK was moderate scoring highest in TK, TPK, and TCK and lowest in CK and PK respectively. On the other hand, the in-service teachers’ overall level of TPACK was moderate scoring highest in CK, PK, and PCK and lowest in TK, TPK, and TCK respectively. The inferential statistical analysis (t-test) indicated a statistically significant difference between pre-service and in-service teachers’ levels of TPACK. All the seven sub-domains of TPACK were significant, with pre-service teachers scoring higher in TK, TCK, and TPK while in-service teachers scoring higher in CK, PK, PCK, and TPACK. The inferential analysis also showed that gender, Internet access at school, and technology training had a significant effect on both pre-service and in-service EFL teachers’ levels of TPACK. The study concluded that both pre-service teacher education programs and in-service teacher training courses need to focus on the connections and interactions between content, pedagogy, and technology in order to help EFL teachers integrate technology effectively into their teaching process. The study recommended investigating other factors that might be predictive of teachers’ levels of TPACK.


English as a Foreign Language (EFL); Technological; Pedagogical; Content knowledge (TPACK)

Full Text:



Al-Abdullatif, A. M. (2019). Auditing the TPACK confidence of pre-service teachers: The case of Saudi Arabia. Education and Information Technologies, 24: 3393-3413. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1007/s10639-019-09924-0

Alahmari, A. S. (2013). An investigation of Saudi Arabian EFL teachers’ engagement with technology [Ph.D. dissertation, Monash University]. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.4225/03/58b4f67696508

Al-Asmari, A. (2005). The use of the internet among EFL teachers at the Colleges of Technology in Saudi Arabia [Ph.D. dissertation, Ohio State University]. Retrieved from http://rave.ohiolink.edu/etdc/view?acc_num=osu1119089945

Alghamdi, S. S. (2017). The effect of EFL teachers’ technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK) on EFL teaching in Saudi Arabian secondary schools [Ph.D. dissertation, University of New England]. Retrieved from https://rune.une.edu.au/web/handle/1959.11/27374

Alhababi, H. H. (2017). Technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK) effectiveness on English teachers and students in Saudi Arabia [Ph.D. dissertation, University of Northern Colorado]. Retrieved from https://digscholarship.unco.edu/dissertations/456

Alharbi, A. A. (2020). The degree of teaching knowledge for Saudi EFL teachers: An investigation for Madinah EFL teachers’ perceptions regarding TPACK framework. English Language Teaching, 13(1): 99-110. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.5539/elt.v13n10p99

Alharbi, A. M. (2013). Teacher’s attitudes towards integrating technology: Case studies in Saudi Arabia and the United States [Master’s thesis, Grand Valley State University]. Retrieved from https://scholarworks.gvsu.edu/theses/58

Alharbi, H. A. (2014). An examination of Saudi high school teachers’ ICT knowledge and implementation [Ph.D. dissertation, Queensland University of Technology]. Retrieved from https://eprints.qut.edu.au/78462

Alqurashi E., Gokbel E., & Carbonara, D. (2017). Teachers’ knowledge in content, pedagogy and technology integration: A comparative analysis between teachers in Saudi Arabia and United States. British Journal of Educational Technology, 48(6), 1414-1426. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1111/bjet.12514

Alqurashi, E. & Samarin, S. (2015). In-service English language teachers’ knowledge of technology ıntegration into the classroom. International Business & Education Conferences (2015), Las Vegas, NV, USA.

Alrwaished, N., Alkandari, A., & Alhashem, F. (2017). Exploring in- and pre-service science and mathematics teachers’ technology, pedagogy, and content knowledge (TPACK): what next? EURASIA Journal of Mathematics, Science and Technology Education. 13(9), 6113-6131. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.12973/eurasia.2017.01053a

Alshumaimeri, Y. A. (2008). Perceptions and attitudes towards using CALL in English classrooms among Saudi secondary EFL teachers. The JALT CALL Journal, 4(2), 29-46. https://doi.org/10.29140/jaltcall.v4n2.61

Alshumaimeri, Y., & Alhassan, R. (2013). Current availability and use of ICT among Secondary EFL Teachers in Saudi Arabia: Possibilities and Reality. Journal of Educational Sciences, 25(1), 225-238. Retrieved from Retrieved from https://jes.ksu.edu.sa/sites/jes.ksu.edu.sa/files/v25n12013-e1_0.pdf

Al-Wehaibi, K., Al-Wabil, A., Alshawi, A. & Alshankity, Z. (2008). Barriers to Internet adoption among faculty in Saudi Arabian university. In proceedings of the World Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia, and Telecommunications. Vienna, Austria, July 2008.

Archambault, L.M., & Barnett, J.H. (2010). Revisiting technological pedagogical content knowledge: Exploring the TPACK framework. Computers & Education, 55, 1656-1662. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2010.07.009

Baser, D., Kopcha, T. J., & Ozden, M. Y. (2016). Developing a Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) assessment for preservice teachers learning to teach English as a foreign language. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 29(4), 749-764. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1080/09588221.2015.1047456

Bingimlas, K. A. (2009). Barriers to successful integration of ICT in teaching and learning environments: A review of the literature. Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science & Technology Education, 5(3), pp. 235-245.

Bingimlas, K. A. (2018). Investigating the level of teachers’ Knowledge in Technology, Pedagogy, and Content (TPACK) in Saudi Arabia. South African Journal of Education, 38(3). Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.15700/saje.v38n3a1496

Bugueño, W. M. R. (2013). Using TPACK to promote effective language teaching in an ESL/EFL classroom [Master’s thesis University of Northern Iowa]. Retrieved from https://scholarworks.uni.edu/grp/150

Chai, C. S., Koh, J. H. L., & Tsai, C. C. (2010). Facilitating preservice teachers’ development of technological, pedagogical, and content knowledge (TPACK). Educational Technology & Society, 13(4), 63-73. Retrieved from https://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=

Dong, Y., Chai, C. S., Sang, G.Y., Koh, H. L., & Tsai, C. C. (2015). Exploring the profiles and interplays of pre-service and in-service teachers’ technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK) in China. Educational Technology & Society, 18(1), 158-169. Retrieved from https://www.jstor.org/stable/jeductechsoci.18.1.158

Cheng, K. H. (2017). A survey of native language teachers’ technological pedagogical and content knowledge (TPACK) in Taiwan, Computer Assisted Language Learning, 30(7), 692-708. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1080/09588221.2017.1349805

Ekrem, S., & Recep, Ç. (2014). Examining Preservice EFL Teachers’ TPACK Competencies in Turkey. Journal of Educators Online, 11(2), 1.

Erdogan, A., & Sahin, I. (2010). Relationship between math teacher candidates´ technological pedagogical and content know ledge (TPACK) and achievement levels. Procedia-Social Behavioral Sciences, 2, 2707-2711. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2010.03.400

Gamlo, N. (2014). EFL teachers use/non-use of ICT at a university in Saudi Arabia [Ph.D. dissertation, University of Warwick]. Retrieved from https://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/29192948.pdf

Hsu, C.Y., Tsai, M.J., Chang, Y.H., & Liang, J.C. (2017). Surveying in-service teachers’ beliefs about game-based learning and perceptions of technological pedagogical and content knowledge of games. Educational Technology & Society, 20(1), 134-143. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/jeductechsoci.20.1.134

Hsu, L. (2016) Examining EFL teachers’ technological pedagogical content knowledge and the adoption of mobile-assisted language learning: a partial least square approach, Computer Assisted Language Learning, 29(8), 1287-1297. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1080/09588221.2016.1278024

Jang, S.J., & Tsai, M.F. (2012). Exploring the TPACK of Taiwanese elementary mathematics and science teachers with respect to use of interactive whiteboards. Computers & Education, 59(2), 327-338. Retrieved from https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0360131512000450

Jordan, K. (2013). The influence of gender on beginning teachers’ measurement of TPACK knowledge. Australian Educational Computing, 28(2), 32e50. Retrieved from http://journal.acce.edu.au/index.php/AEC/index.

Koh, J. H. L., & Chai, C. S. (2014). Teacher clusters and their perceptions of technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK) development through ICT lesson design. Computers & Education, 70, 22-232. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2013.08.017

Koh, J.H.L., Chai, C.S., & Tsai, C.C. (2010). Examining technological pedagogical content knowledge of Singapore pre-service teachers with a large-scale survey. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 26(6), 563-573. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2729.2010.00372.x

Koh, J. H. L., Chai, C. S., & Tsai, C. C. (2014). Demographic factors, TPACK constructs, and teachers’ perceptions of constructivist-oriented TPACK. Educational Technology & Society, 17(1), 185-196. Retrieved from https://www.jstor.org/stable/pdf/jeductechsoci.17.1.185.pdf

Lee, M. H., & Tsai, C. C. (2010). Exploring teachers’ perceived self-efficacy and technological pedagogical content knowledge with respect to educational use of the World Wide Web. Instructional Science, 38, 1-21. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1007/s11251-008-9075-4

Lin, T. C., Tsai, C. C., Chai, C. S., & Lee, M. H. (2013). Identifying science teachers’ perceptions of technological pedagogical and content knowledge (TPACK). Journal of Science Education and Technology, 22(3), 325-336. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1007/s10956-012-9396-6.

Luik, P., Taimalu, M., Laane, H. (2019) Estonian In-Service Teachers’ and Pre-service Teachers’ Perceptions of Content, Pedagogy, and Technology Knowledge, Based on the TPACK Framework. Digital Turn in Schools - Research, Policy, Practice. Lecture Notes in Educational Technology. Springer, Singapore. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-13-7361-9_8

Mishra, P., & Koehler, M. (2006). Technological pedagogical content knowledge: A framework for teacher knowledge. Teachers College Record, 108(6), 1017-1054. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1177/002205741319300303

Nazari, N., Nafissi, Z., Estaji, M., & Marandi, S. S. (2019). Evaluating novice and experienced EFL teachers’ perceived TPACK for their professional development. Cogent Education, 6(1). Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1080/2331186X.2019.1632010

Oz, H. (2015). An investigation of preservice English teachers’ perceptions of mobile assisted language learning. English Language Teaching, 8, 22-34. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.5539/ies.v8n5p119

Prensky, M. (2001). Digital natives, digital immigrants. On the Horizon, 9(5), 1-6. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1108/10748120110424816

Sahin, I. (2011). Development of survey of technological pedagogical and content knowledge (TPACK). Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology, 10(1), 97-105. Retrieved from https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ926558.pdf

Saltan, F., & Arslan, K. (2017). A comparison of in-service and pre-service teachers’ technological pedagogical content knowledge self-confidence. Cogent Education, 4(1). Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1080/2331186X.2017.1311501

Schmidt, D.A., Baran, E., Thompson, A.D., Mishra, P., Koehler, M.J., & Shin, T.S. (2009). Technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK): The development and validation of an assessment instrument for preservice teachers. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 42(2), 123-149. Retrieved from https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ868626.pdf

Shulman, L. S. (1986). Those who understand: Knowledge growth in teaching. Educational Researcher, 15, 4-14. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.3102/0013189X015002004

Tai, S. (2013). From TPACK-in-action workshops to English classrooms: CALL competencies developed and adopted into classroom teaching [Ph.D. dissertation, Iowa State University]. Retrieved from https://lib.dr.iastate.edu/etd/13335

Targut, Y. (2017). A comparison of pre-service, in-service, and formation program for teachers’ perceptions of technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK) in English language teaching (ELT). Education Research and Reviews, 12(22), 1091-1106. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.5897/ERR2017.3311

Wu, Y. T., & Wang, A. Y. (2015). Technological, pedagogical, and content knowledge in teaching English as a foreign language: Representation of primary teachers of English in Taiwan. Asia-Pacific Education Researcher, 24(3), 525-533. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1007/s40299-015-0240-7

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3968/12026


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2021 SULAIMAN ALNUJAIDI

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Share us to:   


Online Submissionhttp://cscanada.org/index.php/sll/submission/wizard


How to do online submission to another Journal?

If you have already registered in Journal A, then how can you submit another article to Journal B? It takes two steps to make it happen:

1. Register yourself in Journal B as an Author

Find the journal you want to submit to in CATEGORIES, click on “VIEW JOURNAL”, “Online Submissions”, “GO TO LOGIN” and “Edit My Profile”. Check “Author” on the “Edit Profile” page, then “Save”.

2. Submission

Go to “User Home”, and click on “Author” under the name of Journal B. You may start a New Submission by clicking on “CLICK HERE”.

We only use three mailboxes as follows to deal with issues about paper acceptance, payment and submission of electronic versions of our journals to databases: caooc@hotmail.com; sll@cscanada.net; sll@cscanada.org

 Articles published in Studies in Literature and Language are licensed under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 (CC-BY).


Address: 1055 Rue Lucien-L'Allier, Unit #772, Montreal, QC H3G 3C4, Canada.
Telephone: 1-514-558 6138 
Website: Http://www.cscanada.net; Http://www.cscanada.org 
E-mailoffice@cscanada.net; office@cscanada.org; caooc@hotmail.com

Copyright © 2010 Canadian Academy of Oriental and Occidental Culture