Reverse the Inverted World Consciousness to Normal: Marx’s Theory of Religious Criticism

Haixia LI


Religion is an interpretation of the existence of the universe and is a cultural phenomenon of divine faith and reverence. It has a long history and many believers in the world. In the eyes of the believers, “deity” or “God” is the highest and last refuge of human and the highest and last spiritual home for human. However, Marx reverses the “inverted world consciousness” to normal and believes that “man created religion rather than religion created man” and then through the religious criticism he exposes the reality of the secular world. He starts from the “practice” of “real people”, profoundly reveals the essence of religious alienation of human, pointing out that only the complete elimination of private ownership and the alienation of labor can eradicate religion to make people get real liberation.


Marx; Religion; Religious criticism; Alienation; Human liberation

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Selected Works of Marx and Engels (Vol.1). (2012). Beijing: People’s Publishing House.



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