Building Bridges: Contextualizing Worldviews Through Cultural Syndromes and the Importance of Expressing Metaphorical Perspective
This critical review of literature draws upon current practices in teaching culture. An examination of existing theories and models exposes limitations and a lack of consensus on how to teach varying worldviews across disciplines. This analysis establishes that understanding the context of human behaviors offers a level of comprehension that results in a deeper, more significant cross-cultural communication experience. Specifically, this review probes how understanding cultural syndromes offers an appropriate contextual framework and how the use of metaphor creates insight into another culture’s meaning. The authors of this review conclude that further investigation is needed to rethink and align existing theory and methodologies into new models for teaching and understanding culture.
Key words: Teaching culture; Cross-cultural communication; Metaphorical perspective
Blaut, J. M. (1993). The Colonizer’s Model of the World: Geographical Diffusionism And Eurocentric History. New York, NY: The Guilford Press.
Boyd, R., & Richerson, P. J. (2005). The Origin and Evolution of Cultures. Oxford, NY: Oxford University Press.
Boyd, R., Richerson, P. J., & Henrich, J. (2011). The Cultural Niche: Why Social Learning Is Essential for Human Adaptation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 108, 10918-10925. doi:10.1073/pnas.1100290108.
Buller, D. J. (2005). Adapting Minds: Evolutionary Psychology and the Persistent Quest for Human Nature. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Carruthers, P., Laurence, S., & Stich, S. P. (2006). The Innate Mind: Culture and Cognition. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
Ellis, R. (2003). Task-Based Language Learning and Teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Fageeh, A. (2001). At Crossroads of EFL Learning and Culture: How to Enhance Cross-Cultural Awareness in EFL College Students. Cross-Cultural Communication, 7(1), 62-72.
Gannon, J. M., & Pillai, R. (2010). Understanding Global Cultures: Metaphorical Journeys Through 29 Nations, Clusters of Nations, Continents, and Diversity. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc..
Goldstein, M., King, G., & Wright, M. (2009). Diffusionism and Acculturation. Retrieved from http://anthropology.ua.edu/cultures/cultures.php?culture=Diffusionism%20and%20Acculturation.
Henrich, J., & Boyd, R. (1998). The Evolution of Conformist Transmission and the Emergence of Between-Group Differences. Evolution and Human Behavior, 19(4), 215-241. Retrieved from http://www2.psych.ubc.ca/~henrich/Website/Papers/H&B98clean.pdf
Henrich, J., & Gil-White, F. J. (2001). The Evolution of Prestige: Freely Conferred Deference as a Mechanism for Enhancing the Benefits of Cultural Transmission. Evolution and Human Behavior, 22(3), 165-196. Retrieved from http://www.hirhome.com/academic/hen%26gil.pdf
Hofstede, G. H., Hofstede, G. J., & Minkov, M. (2005). Cultures and Organizations, Software of the Mind: Intercultural Cooperation and Its Importance for Survival. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
Hong, Y. (2009). Understanding Cultural Syndrome Effects on What and How We Think: A Situated Cognition Model. In R. S. Wyer, C. Chiu, & Y. Hong (Eds.), Understanding Culture: Theory, Research, and Application (p.4). New York: Psychology Press.
Jacobs, C. D., & Heracleous, L. T. (2006). Constructing Shared Understanding: The Role of Embodied Metaphors in Organization Development. The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 42(2), 207-226.
Johnson, J. P., Lenartowicz, T., & Apud, S. (2006). Cross-Cultural Competence in International Business: Toward a Definition and a Model. Journal of International Business Studies, 37(4), 525-543.
Kashima, Y. (2009). Understanding Cultural Syndrome Effects on What and How We Think: A Situated Cognition Model. In R. S. Wyer, C. Chiu, & Y. Hong (Eds.), Understanding Culture: Theory, Research, and Application (p.61). New York: Psychology Press.
Klagge, J. (1997). Approaches to the Iron Cage: Reconstructing the Bars of Weber’s Metaphor. Administration & Society, 29(1), 63-77.
Klapper, J. (2003). Taking Communication to Task? A Critical Review of Recent Trends in Language Teaching. Language Learning Journal, Summer (27), 33-42.
Kövecses, Z. (2002). Metaphor: A Practical Introduction. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, Inc..
Latane, B. (2006). Dynamic Social Impact: The Creation of Culture by Communication. Journal of Communication, 46(4), 13-25.
Lehman, D. R., Chiu, C., & Schaller, M. (2004). Psychology and Culture. Annual Review of Psychology, 55. doi: 10.1146/annurev.psych.55.090902.141927.
Lubart, T. I., & Getz, I. (1997). Emotion, Metaphor, and the Creative Process. Creativity Research Journal, 10(4), 285-301.
McCourt, W. (1997). Using Metaphors to Understand and to Change Organizations: A Critique of Gareth Morgan’s Approach. Organization Studies, 18(3), 511-522.
Moran, P. R. (2001). Teaching Culture: Perspectives in Practice. Scarborough, ON: Thomson Learning, Inc..
Newell, M. (2009). Diving into Context: Using Metaphor as an Analytical Lens for Researching Jamaican Dancehall Culture. Retrieved from http://www.intra1.iss.nl/DevISSues/Articles/Diving-into-Context-Using-metaphor-as-an-analytical-lens-for-researching-Jamaican-Dancehall-Culture
Nicholson, L., & Anderson, A. R. (2005). News and Nuances of the Entrepreneurial Myth and Metaphor: Linguistic Games in Entrepreneurial Sense-Making and Sense-Giving. Entrepreneurship: Theory & Practice, 29(2), 153-172. doi:10.1111/j.1540-6520.2005.00074.x.
Nisbett, R. E. (2003). The Geography of Thought: How Asians and Westerners Think Differently and Why. New York, NY: The Free Press.
O’Reilly, D. (2005). Cultural Brands/Branding Cultures. Journal of Marketing Management, 21(5-6), 573-588.
Oyserman, D., & Sorensen, N. (2009). Understanding Cultural Syndrome Effects on What and How We Think: A Situated Cognition Model. In R. S. Wyer, C. Chiu, & Y. Hong (Eds.), Understanding Culture: Theory, Research, and Application (p.28). New York, NY: Psychology Press.
Paige, R. M., Cohen, A. D., & Shively, R. L. (2004). Assessing the Impact of a Strategies-Based Curriculum on Language and Culture Learning Abroad. Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 10, 253-276.
Schwartz, S. H. (2009). Understanding Cultural Syndrome Effects on What and How We Think: A Situated CognitionModel. In R. S. Wyer, C. Chiu, & Y. Hong (Eds.), Understanding Culture: Theory, Research, and Application (p.128). New York, NY: Psychology Press.
Skehan, P. (2003). Task-Based Instruction. Language Teaching, 36, 1-14. Retrieved from http://faculty.ksu.edu.sa/yousif/3422/Task-based%20instruction,%20Skehan,%202003.pdf
Thanasoulas, D. (2001). The Importance of Teaching Culture in the Foreign Language Classroom. Radical Pedagogy, 3(3). Retrieved from http://radicalpedagogy.icaap.org/content/issue3_3/7-thanasoulas.html
Tomasello, M. (2004). Learning Through Others. Daedalus, 133(1), 51-58.
Triandis, H. C. (1993). Collectivism and Individualism as Cultural Syndromes. Cross-Cultural Research, 27(3/4), 155.
Tsui, A. S., Nifadkar, S. S., & Ou, A. Y. (2009). Understanding Cultural Syndrome Effects on What and How We Think: A Situated Cognition Model. In R. S. Wyer, C. Chiu, & Y. Hong (Eds.), Understanding Culture: Theory, Research, and Application (p.176). New York: Psychology Press.
Wang, X. & Xu, L. (2009). The Propositional vs. Hermeneutic Models of Cross-Cultural Understanding. South African Journal of Philosophy, 28(3), 312-331. Retrieved from http://www.ajol.info/index.php/sajpem/article/viewFile/47863/34233
Wayne, J. (1996). Learning, Culture, and Learning Culture. Adult Education Quarterly, 47(1), 15.
Willis, J. (1996). A Framework for Task-Based Learning. London: Longman.
- There are currently no refbacks.
How to do online submission to another Journal?
If you have already registered in Journal A, then how can you submit another article to Journal B? It takes two steps to make it happen:
1. Register yourself in Journal B as an Author
Find the journal you want to submit to in CATEGORIES, click on “VIEW JOURNAL”, “Online Submissions”, “GO TO LOGIN” and “Edit My Profile”. Check “Author” on the “Edit Profile” page, then “Save”.
Go to “User Home”, and click on “Author” under the name of Journal B. You may start a New Submission by clicking on “CLICK HERE”.
We only use four mailboxes as follows to deal with issues about paper acceptance, payment and submission of electronic versions of our journals to databases: firstname.lastname@example.org; email@example.com; firstname.lastname@example.org; email@example.com
Copyright © Canadian Academy of Oriental and Occidental Culture (CAOOC)
Address: 9375 Rue de Roissy Brossard, Québec, J4X 3A1, Canada
Telephone: 1-514-558 6138