Hydrocarbon Formation in Immature Sediments



Immature sediments (Ro=<0.6) and hydrates commonly contain low concentrations of C2-8+ alkanes/alkenes, higher alkanes, cycloalkanes and aromatics (temperature=<373 K; Pressure=<100 MPa). Their origin is enigmatic. Traditionally they are interpreted as migrated thermogenic oil. Water treatment experiments have established that they could be formed through the interaction of water and organic carbon by Fe catalysis at 298 K. This study investigates the Eh and pH associated with low temperature (263-298 K) hydrocarbon formation in saline pore-waters containing Ca-montmorillonite and Fe0 (ZVI) over a 300 day period in order to identify the principal reaction mechanisms. The interaction of flowing gaseous carbon dioxide-hydrocarbon mixtures with halite promoted with FexOy, Fex[OH]y at 288 – 308 K is examined experimentally. The study established that halite and mixtures of halite with organic material, Fe-montmorillonite, CaCO3, Ca(OH)2, MgSO4, (NH4)2SO4, K2SO4, pyroclastics, ash, phosphate enriched organic material, and coal can facilitate the removal of CO2, the formation of H2O on the catalyst surface, and the formation of hydrocarbons incorporating the CO2.

Key Word: ZVI; Oil formation; CO2; Eh; pH; NaCl; Halite; Montmorillonite


ZVI; Oil formation; CO2; Eh; pH; NaCl; Halite; Montmorillonite

Full Text:



Antia, D.D.J. (2008a). Oil polymerisation and fluid expulsion from low temperature, low maturity, over pressured sediments. Journal of Petroleum Geology, 31, 263 – 282.

Antia, D.D.J. (2008b) Ionic catalyst capture of carbon oxides. GB Patent application GB2463878 A.

Antia, D.D.J. (2009a). Low temperature oil polymerisation and hydrocarbon expulsion from continental shelf and continental slope sediments. Indian Journal of Petroleum Geology, 16(2), 1 – 30.

Antia, D. D. J. (2009b).Polymerisation Theory – Formation of hydrocarbons in sedimentary strata (hydrates, clays, sandstones, carbonates, evaporites, volcanoclastics) from CH4 and CO2: Part I:Polymerisation concepts, kinetics, sources of hydrogen, and redox environment. Indian Journal of Petroleum Geology, 17(1), 49-86; Part II: Formation and Interpretation of Stage 1 to Stage 5 Oils, Indian Journal of Petroleum Geology, 17(2), 11-70; Part III: Hydrocarbon expulsion from the hydrodynamic flow regimes contained within a generating pressure mound. Indian Journal of Petroleum Geology, 18(1), 1-50.

Antia, D.D.J. (2010). Sustainable zero-valent metal (ZVM) water treatment associated with infiltration, abstraction and recirculation. Sustainability, 2, 2988-3073.

Antia, D.D.J. (2011). Modification of aquifer pore-water by static diffusion using nano-zero-valent metals.Water, 3, 79-112.

Baxendale, J.H., Evans, M.G., & Kilham, J.K. (1946a). The kinetics of polymerisation reactions in aqueous solution. Transaction Faraday Society, 42, 668-675.

Baxendale, J.H., Evans, M.G., & Park, G.S. (1946b). The mechanism and kinetics of the initiation of polymerisation by systems containing hydrogen peroxide. Transaction Faraday Society, 42, 155-169.

Baxendale, J.H., Bywater, S., & Evans, M.G. (1946c). Relation between molecular weight and intrinsic viscosity for polymethyl methacrylate. Journal Polymer Science, 1, 237-244.

Barbusinski, K. (2009). Fenton Reaction – controversy concerning the chemistry. Ecological Chemistry Engineering, 16, 347-358.

Behar, B., & Stein, G. (1966). Photochemical evolution of oxygen from certain aqueous solutions. Science, 154, 1012-1013.

Bokare, A.D., & Choi, W. (2009). Zero-valent aluminium for oxidative degradation of aqueous organic pollutants. Environmental Science & Technology, 43, 7130-7135.

Braun, D. (2009). Origins and development of initiation of free radical polymerisation process. International Journal of Polymer Science. Article ID 893234, 10 p.

Campbell, T.J., Burris, D.R., Roberts, A.L., & Wells, J.R. (1997). Trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene reduction in a metallic iron-water-vapor batch system. Environmental Toxicology Chemistry, 16, 625-630.

Deng, B., Cambell, T.J., & Burris, D.R. (1997). Hydrocarbon formation in metallic iron/water systems. Environmental Science & Technology, 31, 1185-1190.

Deng, B., Burris, D.R., & Campbell, T.J. (1999). Reduction of vinyl chloride in metallic iron-water systems. Environmental Science & Technology, 33, 2651-2656.

Duan, Z., & Sun, R. (2003). An improved model calculating CO2 solubility in pure water and aqueous NaCl solutions from 273-533 K and from 0 to 2000 bar. Chemical Geology, 193, 257-271.

Elworthy, H.S., &Williamson, E.H. (1902). Manufacture of gas consisting chiefly of methane or marsh gas for illuminating, heating and power purposes. GB Patent 12,461, 31 May, 1902.

Evans, M.G., George, P., & Uri, N. (1949). The [Fe(OH)]+2 and [Fe(O2H)]+2 complexes. Transaction Faraday Society, 45, 230-36.

Gagnon, R. (2003).How to convert carbon monoxide into synthetic petroleum by a process of catalytic CO petrolisation. US Patent 6774149.

Gagnon, R. (2004).How to convert carbon dioxide into synthetic hydrocarbon through a process of catalytic hydrogenation called CO2 hydrocarbonation. US Patent 6987134.

Gaur, S., & Reed, T.B. (1998). Thermal data for natural and synthetic fuels. New York: Marcel Dekker.

George, P. (1952). The specific reaction of iron in some Hemoproteins. In.W.G. Frankenburg (ed.) Advances in Catalysis and related subjects, IV, 367-428. New York: Academic Press.

Hardy, L.I., Gillham, R.W. (1995). Formation of Hydrocarbons from the reduction of aqueous CO2 by zero valentiron. Environmental Science & Technology, 30, 57-65.

Hori, Y., Murata, A., & Takahashi, R. (1989). Formation of hydrocarbons in the electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide at a copper electrode in aqueous solution. Journal Chemical Society Faraday Transactions, 85, 2309-2326.

Kang, S-H., Choi, W. (2009). Oxidative degradation of organic compounds using zero-valent iron in the presence of natural organic matter serving as an electron shuttle. Environmental Science & Technology, 43, 878-883.

Kolbel, H.; Engelhardt, F., (1959). Synthesis of hydrocarbons and oxygen-containing organic compounds. US Patent US2917531.

Kotz, J.C., & Treichel, P. (1996). Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity. Fort Worth, Saunders College Publishing.

Kuster, H. (1936a). Reduction of carbon dioxide to higher hydrocarbons at atmospheric pressures by catalysts of the iron group. Brennstoff-Chem, 17, 221-228.

Kuster, H. (1936b). Reduction of carbon dioxide to methane upon iron catalysts at ordinary pressures. Brennstoff-Chem, 17, 203-206.

Lim, T-T., Feng, J., & Zhu, B-W. (2007). Kinetic and mechanistyic examinations of reductive transformation pathways of brominated methanes with nano-scale Fe and Ni/Fe particles. Water Research, 41, 875-883.

Maclaurin, R. (1915). Manufacture of various products from bituminous fuel. US Patent 1,130,001.

Mwebi, N.O. (2005). Fenton & Fenton-like reactions: the nature of oxidizing intermediates involved (Ph.D Thesis). University of Maryland, USA.

O’Rear, D.J. (2005). Conversion of syngas to distillate fuels. US Patent US6864398.

Puskas, I. (1997). Can carbon dioxide be reduced to high molecular weight hydrocarbons? Proceedings American Chemical Society, ACS 213 National meeting (San Fransisco, Apr. 13-17 1997). Retrieved from http: www.anl.gov/PCS/acsfuel/preprint%20archive/Files/42_2_SAN% 20FRANSICO_04-97_0680.pdf

Sabatier, P. (1908). Manufacture of methane or mixtures of methane and hydrogen. French Patent 400656.

Sabatier, P. (1910). Process of manufacturing methane or of mixtures of methane and hydrogen. US Patent US00956734.

Saberi, M-A. (1996). The structure of carbon dioxide adsorbed on a sodium chloride (001) surface (Master’s Thesis). Concordia University, Montreal, Canada.

Schrick, B., Blough, J.L., Jones, A.D., & Mallouk, T.E. (2002). Hydrochlorination of trichloroethylene to hydrocarbons using bimetallic nickel-iron nanoparticles. Chemical Materials, 14, 5140-5147.

Steynberg, A., &Dry, M. (2004). Fischer-Tropsch Technology. New York: Elsevier.

Storch, H.H., Golumbic, N., & Anderson, R.B. (1951). The Fischer-Tropsch and related synthesis. New York: Wiley.

Verhaart, M.R.A., Bielen, A.A.M., van der Oost, J., Stams, A.J.M., & Kengen, S.W.M. (2010). Hydrogen production by hyperthermophillic bacteria and archaea: mechanisms for reductant disposal. Environmental Technology, 31, 993-1003.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3968%2Fj.aped.1925543820110101.001


  • There are currently no refbacks.


How to do online submission to another Journal?

If you have already registered in Journal A, then how can you submit another article to Journal B? It takes two steps to make it happen:

1. Register yourself in Journal B as an Author

Find the journal you want to submit to in CATEGORIES, click on “VIEW JOURNAL”, “Online Submissions”, “GO TO LOGIN” and “Edit My Profile”. Check “Author” on the “Edit Profile” page, then “Save”.

2. Submission

Go to “User Home”, and click on “Author” under the name of Journal B. You may start a New Submission by clicking on “CLICK HERE”.

We only use three mailboxes as follows to deal with issues about paper acceptance, payment and submission of electronic versions of our journals to databases:
caooc@hotmail.com; aped@cscanada.net; aped@cscanada.org

Copyright © 2010 Canadian Research & Development Centre of Sciences and Cultures
Address: 730, 77e AV, Laval, Quebec, H7V 4A8, Canada

Telephone: 1-514-558 6138
E-mail:office@cscanada.net  office@cscanada.org