Hydrocarbon Formation in Immature Sediments
Immature sediments (Ro=<0.6) and hydrates commonly contain low concentrations of C2-8+ alkanes/alkenes, higher alkanes, cycloalkanes and aromatics (temperature=<373 K; Pressure=<100 MPa). Their origin is enigmatic. Traditionally they are interpreted as migrated thermogenic oil. Water treatment experiments have established that they could be formed through the interaction of water and organic carbon by Fe catalysis at 298 K. This study investigates the Eh and pH associated with low temperature (263-298 K) hydrocarbon formation in saline pore-waters containing Ca-montmorillonite and Fe0 (ZVI) over a 300 day period in order to identify the principal reaction mechanisms. The interaction of flowing gaseous carbon dioxide-hydrocarbon mixtures with halite promoted with FexOy, Fex[OH]y at 288 – 308 K is examined experimentally. The study established that halite and mixtures of halite with organic material, Fe-montmorillonite, CaCO3, Ca(OH)2, MgSO4, (NH4)2SO4, K2SO4, pyroclastics, ash, phosphate enriched organic material, and coal can facilitate the removal of CO2, the formation of H2O on the catalyst surface, and the formation of hydrocarbons incorporating the CO2.
Key Word: ZVI; Oil formation; CO2; Eh; pH; NaCl; Halite; Montmorillonite
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