Why Crude Oil Vapor Pressure Should Be Tested Prior to Rail Transport
Recent crude oil rail car accidents have forced US and Canadian authorities to issue Emergency Testing Orders to ensure safe transportation of crude oils. One crucial parameter in meeting these safety requirements is the testing of the vapor pressure (VP) of crude oil.
This paper explains the impact of highly volatile components inside the crude oil on the vapor pressure measurement. It describes typical VP measurement errors and discusses guidelines and technology for proper crude oil classification.
It offers measurement data to show the effect of sample outgassing and to describe the impact of temperature changes and the vapor-liquid ratio (V/L) on vapor pressure test results. The second part of the paper discusses methods to measure the True Vapor Pressure (TVP) and Bubble Point Pressure (BPP) of Crude Oils for safety purposes.
Key words: Crude oil; Volatility testing; Safety data sheet; Hazardous material regulations (HMR); Emergency testing order; Vapor pressure (VP); ASTM D6377; Reid vapor pressure (RVP); ASTM D323; True vapor pressure (TVP); Vapor-liquid ratio (V/L); Bubble point pressure (BPP); Floating piston cylinder (FPC)
 Unites States Department of Transportation. (2014, March 11). Emergency and restriction order docket No. DOT-OST-2014-0025 [Online forum comment]. Retrieved from http://www.dot.gov/briefing-room/dot-issues-emergency-order-requiring-stricter-standards-transport-crude-oil-rail
 Code of Federal Regulations. (2014, March 13). Title 49 transportation [Online forum comment]. Retrieved from http://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?tpl=/ecfrbrowse/Title49/49tab_02.tpl
 Segato, R. (2014, March 13). CCQTA update for COQA [Online forum comment]. Retrieved from http://www.coqa-inc.org/20130306-07_Segato.pdf,.
 US Environmental Protection Agency. (2014, March 13). Approval of ASTM method to determine vapor pressure of crude oil [Online forum comment]. Retrieved from http://epa.gov/ttn/emc/approalt/ALT101.pdf
 US Environmental Protection Agency. (2014, April 1). AP-42, Compilation of air
pollutant emissions (Chapter 7) [Online forum comment]. Retrieved from http://www.epa.gov/ttn/chief/ap42/ch07/final/c07s01.pdf
 Lord, D. L., & Rudeen, D. K. (2010). Strategic petroleum reserve crude oil equation of state model development-current performance against measured data. Research Report, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM & Livermore, CA.
 IMO. (2006). Specialized training for oil tankers (Model Course 1.02, 2006 ed.). London: International Maritime Organization.
 ICS, OCIMF, & IAPH (2006). ISGOTT–international safety guide for oil tankers and terminals (5th ed.). London: Witherby.
- There are currently no refbacks.
How to do online submission to another Journal?
If you have already registered in Journal A, then how can you submit another article to Journal B? It takes two steps to make it happen:
1. Register yourself in Journal B as an Author
Find the journal you want to submit to in CATEGORIES, click on “VIEW JOURNAL”, “Online Submissions”, “GO TO LOGIN” and “Edit My Profile”. Check “Author” on the “Edit Profile” page, then “Save”.
Go to “User Home”, and click on “Author” under the name of Journal B. You may start a New Submission by clicking on “CLICK HERE”.
We only use three mailboxes as follows to deal with issues about paper acceptance, payment and submission of electronic versions of our journals to databases:
email@example.com; firstname.lastname@example.org; email@example.com
Copyright © 2010 Canadian Research & Development Centre of Sciences and Cultures
Address: 730, 77e AV, Laval, Quebec, H7V 4A8, Canada
Telephone: 1-514-558 6138