Uncertainty in Fluid Flow Measurement: A Case Study of Flow Measurement Comparison Through PVC and Steel Pipes at Varying Temperatures for Liquid With Small Air Bubbles

N. Uwaezuoke[, S. I. Onwukwe, A. J. Ibegbu


Using fresh water with small amount of air bubbles of size as small as a pencil dot, the existing flow meter in the flow system (hydraulics) was proved using the Sierra Ultrasonic meter (Innova-SonicTM Model 210i) with measurement medium taken at ambient temperature of 30oC. The procedures for installation of the ultrasonic meter were followed and measurement taken with transducers mounted using V-method and N-method respectively, on a pipe size of 20mm. The V-method and N-method gave average flow rates of 0.02918cf/sec and 0.04402cf/sec respectively. The V-method resulted in a meter factor of 1.9610, while the N-method resulted in a meter factor of 3.2511. The V-method and N-method gave relative percentage error values of 49% and 69.2% respectively. The V-method proved to be suitable for the pipe size of 20mm used in the experiment, with standard deviation of 5.3339x10-4 and variance of 2.84505x10-7 compared to standard deviation of 6.8x10-3 and variance of 4.624x10-5 obtained from N-method. It is recommended that a meter factor of 1.9610 obtained from V-method be applied on the existing meter. The liquid flow rates at measurement medium temperatures of 50oC and 70oC were determined by the use of poly-vinyl chloride and steel pipes respectively. It was observed that fluid flow rate increased with increase in temperature, and flow rate determined with ultrasonic flowmeter depends on material type as flow through poly-vinyl chloride pipe was generally higher compared with steel pipe at the temperatures values considered.


Flow measurement; PVC pipe; Steel pipe; Temperature; Ultrasonic flowmeter

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3968/11003


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