Biological Significance of Spicy Essential Oils

Sumitra Maurya, Ajeet Kumar Kushwaha, Gurdip Singh

Abstract


Spices are used as food additives since ancient times, as flavouring agents but also as natural food preservatives. Spice essential oils are complex mixtures of volatile substances, ordinarily terpenes, sesquiterpenes and oxygenated derivatives. They have been largely employed for their properties already observed in nature i.e., for their antibacterial, antifungal and insecticidal properties. At present, approximately 3000 essential oils are known, 300 of which are commercially important especially for pharmaceutical, agronomic, food, sainitary, cosmetic and perfume industries. It is important to develop a better understanding of their mode of action for new applications in human health, agriculture and environment. Some of them constitute effective alternatives or complements to synthetic compounds of chemical industry.


Keywords


Spice essential oil; Antibacterial; Antifungal; Insecticidal; Food additives

Full Text:

PDF

References


Al-Bayati, F. A. (2008). Synergistic antibacterial activity between Thymus vulgaris and Pimpinella anisum essential oils and methanol extracts. J. of Ethnopharmalogy, 116(3), 403-406.

Angioni, A., Barra, A., Coroneo, V., Dessi, S., & Cabras, P. (2006). Chemical compostion, seasonal variability, and antifungal activity of lavandula stoechas l. ssp. stoechas essential oils from stem/leaves and flowers. J. Agric. Food Chem., 54, 4364-4370.

Anitescu, G., Doneanu, C., & Radulescu, V. (1997). Isolation of Coriander oil: Comparison between steam distillation and supercritical CO2 extraction. Flavour Fragr. J., 12, 173.

Banerjee, A., Nigam, S. S., & Kaul, V. K. (1978). Antiicrobial activity of Curcuma aromatica salisb. Indian Perfumer, 22, 69.

Baysal, T., & Starmens, D. A. J. (1999). Supercritical fluid extraction in plant essential and volatile oil analysis. J. Supercrit. Fluids, 14, 225.

Bullerman, L. B., Lieu, F. Y., & Seire, A .S. (1977). Inhibition of growth and aflatoxin production by cinnamon and clove oils, cinnamic aldehyde and eugenol. J. Food Sci., 42, 1107.

Carović-Stanko, K., Orlić, S., Politeo, O., Strikić, F., Kolak, I., Milos, M., & Satovic., Z. (2010). Composition and antibacterial activities of essential oils of seven Ocimum taxa. Food Chemistry, 119(1), 196-201.

Chang, S. T., Chen, P. F., & Chang, S. C. (2001). Antibacterial activity of leaf essential oils and their constituents from Cinnamomum osmophloeum. J. Ethnopharmacol., 77, 123-127.

 Chemat, F., Smadja, J., & Lucchesi, M. E. (2003). Solvent less microwave extraction of volatile natural plants. European Patent Application.

 Chemat, F., Smadja, J., & Lucchesi, M. E. (2004). Solvent-free microwave extraction of volatile natural substances. United States Patent Application.

Chen, S. S., & Spiro, M. (1994). Study of microwave extraction of essential oil constituents from plant materials. Journal of Microwave Power Electromagnetic Energy, 29, 231-241.

Dambolena, J. S., Zunino, M. P., Lopez, A. G., Rubinstein, H. R., Zygadlo, J. A., Mwangi, J. W., …, Kariuki, S. T. (2010). Essential oils composition of Ocimum basilicum L. and Ocimum gratissimum L. from Kenya and their inhibitory effects on growth and fumonisin production by Fusarium verticillioides. Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies, 11(2), 410-414.

Davidson, P. M., & Parish, M. E. (1989). Methods for testing the efficacy of food antimicrobials. Food Technology, 43, 148-155.

De Morais, S. M., Facundo, V. A., Bertini, L. M., Barreira Cavalcanti, E. S., Dos Anjos Junior, J. F., Ferreira, S. A., …, De Souza Neto, M. A. (2007). Chemical composition and larvicidal activity of essential oils from Piper species. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology, 35, 670-675.

De, M., De, A. K., & Banerjee, A. B. (1999). Antimicrobial screening of some Indian spices. Phytother Res., 13, 616-618.

Díaz-Maroto, M. C., Díaz-Maroto, H. I. J., Sánchez-Palomo, E., & Pérez-Coello, M. S. (2005). Volatile components and key odorants of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) oil extracts obtained by simultaneous distillation-extraction and supercritical fluid extraction. J. Agric. Food Chem., 53, 5385.

Dixit, V., Chaturvedi, R. V., & Tripathi, S. C. (1992). Evaluation of essential oil against Pulse beetle. Nat. Acad. Sci. Lett., 15, 253.

Doimo, L., Fletcher, R. J., & D’arcy, B. R. (1999). Chiral excess: measuring the chirality of geographically and seasonally different geranium oils. Essent. Oil. Res., 11, 291-299.

Duarte, A., Ferreira, S., Silva, F., & Domingues, F. C. (2012). Synergistic activity of coriander oil and conventional antibiotics against Acinetobacter baumannii. Phytomedicine, 19(3-4), 236-238.

Dubey, N. K., Bhargava, K. S., & Dixit, S. N. (1983). Protection of some stored food commodities from fungi by essential oils of Ocimum canum and Citrus medica. Int. J. Trop. Plant Dis., 1, 117.

Dubey, S., Upadhyayay, P. P., & Tripathi, S. C. (1991). Fungitoxicity and insect repellent efficacy of some spices. Indian Phytopathol., 44, 101.

Dugo, G., Verzera, A., Cotroneo, A., Stagno d’Alcontres, I., Mondello, L., & Bartle, K. D. (1994). Automated HPLC-HRGC: A powerful method for essential oils analysis. Part II. Determination of the enantiomeric distribution of linalol in sweet orange, bitter orange and mandarin essential oils. Flavour Fragrance J., 9, 99-104.

Edris, A. E., & Farrag, E. S. (2003). Antifungal activity of peppermint and sweet basil essential oils and their major aroma constituents on some plant pathogenic fungi from the vapor phase. Nahrung/Food, 47, 117.

Eikani, M. H., Goodarznia, I., & Mirza, M. (1999). Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of cumin seeds (Cuminum cyminum L.). Flavour Fragr. J., 14, 29.

El-Kamali, H. H., Ahmed, A. H., Mohammed, A. S., Yahia, A. A. M., El-Tayeb, I. H., & Ali, A. A. (1998). Antibacterial properties of essential oils from Nigella sativa seeds, Cymbopogon citratus leaves and Pulicaria undulata aerial parts. Fitoterapia, 69, 77.

Emura, M., Nohara, I., Toyoda, T., & Kanisawa, T. (1997). The Volatile Constituents of the Coffee Flower (Coffea arabica L.). Flavour Fragr. J., 12, 9-13.

Ettre, L. S., & Zlatkis, A. (1967). The practice of gas chromatography. New York: Inter Science.

Fahrudin, M. A. E. (2000). Permisahan minyak atsiri rimpang jahe (Z. Officinalae Rosc) secara kromatografilapis tripis dan akinitasnya terhadap jamur malassezia furfur in vitro (Undergraduate thesis). Faculty of Medicine.

Farag, R. S., Daw, Z. Y., & Abo-Raya, S. H. (1989). Influence of some spice essential oils on Aspergillus Parasiticus Growth and production of aflatoxins in a synthetic medium. J. Food Sci., 54, 74.

Forss, D. A., Edwards, P. R., Sutherland, B. J., & Birwistle, R. J. (1964). direct spectrophotometric examination of 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazones on paper chromatograms. Chromatogr., 16, 460.

Gessner, G. H. (1973). The encyclopedia of chemistry (3rd ed). Van Nostrand Reinhold Company.

Guenther, E. (1948). The essential oils Vol. I. New York: D. Van Nostrand Co.Inc..

Hay, R. K. M., & Waterman, P. G. (1993). Volatile oil crops: Their biology biochemistry and production. New York: Longman Scientific and Technical.

Heath, H. B. (1978). Flavoring material in flavour technology: Profile products applications. Westport, Connecticut: AVI Publishing company, Inc..

Herion, P., Full, G., Winterhalter, P., Schreier, P., & Bicchi, C. (1993). Enantiodifferentiation of isomeric vitispiranes phytochem. Anal., 4, 235.

Hili, P., Evans, C. S., & Veness, R. G. (1997), Antimicrobial action of essential oils: The effect of dimethylsulphoxide on the activity of cinnamon oil. Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 24, 269.

Hirose, Y., & Nakatsuka, T. (1967). Terpenoids. XII: The occurrence of nezukone in the wood of Thuja plicata Donn. J. Jap. Wood Res. Soc., 13(3), 1 23-124.

Hobson, K. R., Wood, D. L., Cool, L. G., White, P. R., Ohtsuka, T., Kubo, I., & Zavarin, E. (1993). Chiral specificity in responses by the bark beetle Dendroctonus valens to host kairomones. J. Chem. Ecol., 19, 1837-1846.

Holm, Y., Vuorela, P., & Hiltumen, R. (1907). Enantiomeric composition of monoterpene hydrocarbons in n-hexane extracts of Angelica archangelica L. roots and seeds. Flavour Fragr. J., 12, 397-400.

Illes, V., Daood, H. G., Perneczki, S., Szokonya, L., & Then, M. (2000). Extraction of coriander seed oil by CO2and propane at super- and subcritical conditions. Journal of Supercritical Fluids, 17(2), 177-186

Ishizuka, N., Minakuchi, H., Nakanishi, K., Soga, K., Hosoya, K., & Tanaka, N. (1998). Chromatographic properties of miniaturized silica rod columns. High Resolute Chromatogr., 21, 107.

Islam, M. S., Hasan, M., M., Xiong, W., Zhang, S. C., & Lei, C. L. (2009). Fumigant and repellent activities of essential oil from coriandrum sativum (L.) (Apiaceae) against red Xour beetle tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). J. of Pest Science, 82(2), 171-177.

Isman, M. B., Wan, A. J., & Passreiter, C. M. (2001). Insecticidal activity of essential oils to the tobacco cutworm, Spodoptera litura Fitoterapia, 72(1), 65-68.

James, A. T., & Martin, A. J. P. (1952). Gas-liquid partition chromatography; the separation and micro-estimation of volatile fatty acids from formic acid to dodecanoic acid. Biochem J., 50, 679.

Joulain, D. (1994). Methods for analyzing essential oils: Modern analysis methodologies, uses and abuses. Perfumer & Flavorist, 19, 5.

Kanat, M., & Alma, M. H. (2004). Insecticidal effects of essential oils from various plants against larvae of pine processionary moth (thaumetopoea pityocampa schiff) (lepidoptera: Thaumetopoeidae). Pest Manag Sci., 60, 173.

Kapoor, I. P. S., Singh, B., Singh, G., Heluani, C. S., Lampasoma, M. P., & Catalan, C. A. N. (2008). Chemistry, antioxidant and antimicrobial investigations on essential oil and oleoresins of Zingiber officinale. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 46, 3295-3302

Karyioni, T., & Hayashi, K. (1956). Studies on the microanalysis of essential oil components. I. The paper chromatography of terpene alcohol by using anthranilate. Pharm. Bull., 4, 494.

Keita, S. M., Vincent, C., Schmit, J.-P., Arnason, J. T., & Belanger, A. (2001). Efficacy of essential oil of Ocimum basilicum L. and O. gratissimum L. applied as an insecticidal fumigant and powder to control callosobruchus maculatus (Fab.) [coleoptera: Bruchidae]. J. of Stored products Research, 37(4), 339-349.

Kim, D. H., & Ahn, Y. J. (2001). Contact and fumigant activities of constituents of Foeniculum vulgare fruit against three coleopteran stored-product insects Pest Manag. Sci., 57, 301.

Kim, S.-Il, Roh, J.-Y., Kim, D.-H., Lee, H.-S., & Ahn, Y.-J. (2003). Insecticidal activities of aromatic plant extracts and essential oils against Sitophilus oryzae and Callosobruchus chinensis. J. of Stored Products Research, 39(3), 293-303.

Kingston, B. H. (1964). The interpretation and value of gas liquid chromatography (G. L. C.) data. Am Perfumer Cosmet, 79, 50.

Kirchner, J. G., Miller, J. M., & Mellar, G. J. (1951). Separation and identification of some terpenes by a new chromatographic technique. Anal. Chem., 23, 420.

Konig, W. A., Gchrche, B., Ichein, D., Evers, P., Donnecke, J., & Wang, W. J. (1992). Enantiomeric composition of the chiral constituents in essential oils: Part 1: Monoterpene hydrocarbons. W. High Resolute Chromatogr., 15, 367.

Kosalec, I., Pepeljnak, S., & Kustrak, D. (2005). Antifungal activity of fluid extract and essential oil from anise fruits (Pimpinella anisum L., apiaceae). Acta Pharmaceutca (Zagreb,croatia), 55(4), 377-385.

Kreis, P., & Mossandl, A. (1993). Chiral compounds of essential oils. Part XIII. Simultaneous chirality evaluation of geranium oil constituents. A. Flavour Fragr. J., 8, 161-168.

Kubeczka, K. H. (1981). Application of HPLC for the separation of Flavour compounds. P. Schreier, Walter, De Gruyter, Berlin, 345.

Kumar, P., Mishra, S., Malik, A., & Satya, S. (2011). Insecticidal properties of Mentha species. Industrial Crops and Products, 34, 802-817.

Kurth, E. F. (1939). Separation of wood extractives into simpler components. Ind. Eng. chem., 11, 203.

Lachowicz, K. J., Jones G. P., Briggs, D. R., Bienvenu, F. E., Wan, J., Wilcock, A., & Coventry, M. J. (1998). The synergistic preservative effects of the essential oils of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) against acid-tolerant food microflora. Lett. Appl. Microbiol., 26, 209.

Laouer, H., Hirèche-Adjal, Y., Prado, S., Boulaacheb, N., Akkal, S., Singh, G., …, Szczepaniak, L. (2009). Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oil of Bupleurum montanum and B. plantagineum. Natural Poduct Communications, 4, 1605-1610.

Lis-Balchin, M., & Deans, S. G. (1998). Studies on the potential usage of mixtures of plant essential oils as synergistic antibacterial agents in foods. Phytother, Res., 12, 472.

Lo Cantore, P., Iacobellis, N. S., De Marco, A., Capasso, F., & Senatore, F. (2004). Antibacterial activity of Coriandrum sativum L. and Foeniculum vulgare miller var. vulgare (Miller) essential oils. J. Of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 52(26), 7862-7866.

Lucchesi, M. E., Chemat, F., & Smadja, J. (2004). An original solvent free microwave extraction of essential oils from spices. Flavour Frag. J., 19, 134.

Maini, P. N., & Rajesis, B. M. (1998). Toxicity of some volatile oils against golden snail, P. Philipp. J. Sci., 121, 391.

Manuel, F., Balandrin, S., Marth, L., & James, A. K. (1998). Biologically active volatile organosulphur compounds from seeds of neem tree Azardracta indica. J. Agric. Food Chem., 36, 1048.

Mao, J., Kwak, I-S., Sathishkumar, M., Sneha, K., & Yun, Y.-S. (2010). Preparation of PEI-coated bacterial biosorbent in water solution: Optimization of manufacturing conditions using response surface methodology. Bioresource Technology, 101(20), 7958-7965.

Martini, H., Weidenborner, M., Adams, S., & Kunz, B. (1996). Eugenol and carvacrol: the main fungicidal compounds in clove and savory. Ital. J. Food Sci., 1, 63.

Masada, Y. (1968). Analysis of essential oils by gas chromatography (p.206). Tokyo: Kirokawa Publ. Co..

Masotti, V., Juteau, F., Bessiere, J. M., & Viano, J. (2003). Seasonal and phenological variations of the … the narrow endemic species Artemisia molinieri and its biological activities. J. Agric. food chem., 51, 7115-7121.

Megalla, S. E., El-keltawi, N. E. M., & Ross, S. A. (1980). A study of antimicrobial action of some essential oil constituents. Herba Pol., 3, 181.

Mimica-Dukic, N., Kujundzic, S., Sokovic, M., & Couladis, M. (2003). Essential oil composition and antifungal activity of Foeniculum vulgare Mill: Obtained by different distillation conditions. Phytother Res., 17, 368.

Mirov, N. T. (1946). Composition of gum turpentine of Coulter pine. Ind. Eng. Chem., 38, 405.

Mondello, L., Bartle, K. D., Dugo, P., Dugo, G., & Cotronee, A. (1995). Automated HPLCHRGC: A powerful method for essential oils analysis. Part V. Identification of terpene hydrocarbons of bergamot, lemon, mandarin, sweet orange, bitter orange, grapefruit, clementine and mexican lime oils by coupled HPLC-HRGCMS (ITD). A. Flavour Fragr. J., 10, 33.

Montes-Belmont, R., & Carvajal, M. J. (1998). Control of Aspergillus flavus in maize with plant essential oils and their components. Food Protect., 16, 616.

Neilsen, P. V., & Rios, R. (2000). Inhibition of fungal growth on bread by volatile components from spices and herbs, and the possible application in active packaging, with special emphasis on mustard essential oil. Int. J. Food Microbiol., 60, 219-229.

Nikaido, H., & Vaara, M. (1985). Molecular basis of bacterial outer membrane permeability. Microbiol. Rev., 49, 1.

Oiye, S. O., & Muroki, N. M. (2002). Use of spices in Foods. J of Food Technology in Africa, 7, 39-44.

Pai, B. H., Prashant., G. M., Murlikrishna, K. S., Shivakumar, K. M., & Chandu, G. N., (2010). Antifungal efficacy of Punica granatum, Acacia nilotica, Cuminum cyminum and Foeniculum vulgare on Candida albicans: An in vitro study. Indian J. Dental Res., 21(3), 334-336.

Pant, D. C., Verma, G. S., & Joshi, H. C. (1993). Some insecticidal plants of Kumaun Hills, Himalayas. Chem. Pharm. Bull., 10, 13.

Papachristos, D. P., & Stamopoulos, D. C. (2002). Repellent, toxic and reproduction inhibitory effects of essential oil vapours on Acanthoscelides obtectus say (Coleoptera-bruchidae). J. Stored products Research, 38(2), 117-128.

Pare, J. R. J., & Belanger, J. M. R. (1997). Instrumental methods in food analysis. Amesterdam: Elesevier.

Paster, N., Juven, B. J., Shaay, E., Menasherov, M., Nitzam, R., Weisslowiez, H., & Ravid, U. (1990). Antifungal activity of oregano and thyme essential oils applied as fumigant against fungi attacking stored grain. Lett. Appl. Microbiol., 11, 33-37.

Paster, N., Menasherov, M., Ravid, U., & Juven, B. J. J. (1995). Inhibitory effect of oregano and thyme essential oils on molds and food borne bacteria. Food Protect, 58, 81.

Patker, K. L., Usha, C. M., Shetty. S. H., Paster, N., & Lacey J. (1993). Effect of spice oils on growth of aflotoxin on B1 production by Aspergillus flavus. Lett Appl. Microbiol., 17, 49.

Pavela, R. (2011). Insecticidal and repellent activity of selected essential oils against of the pollen beetle, Meligethes aeneus (Fabricius) adults. Industrial Crops and Products, 34(1), 888-892.

Pourmortazavi, S. M., Sefidkon, F., & Hosseini, S. G. (2003). Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of essential oils from Perovskia atriplicifolia Benth. J. Agric. Food Chem., 51, 5414.

Prajapati, V., Tripathi, A. K., Aggarwal. K. K., & Khanuja, S. P. S. (2005). Insecticidal, repellent and oviposition-deterrent activity of selected essential oils against Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti andCulex quinquefasciatus. Bioresource Technology, 96(16), 1749-1757.

Prasad, G., Kumar, A., Singh, A. K., Bhattacharya, A. K., Singh, K., & Sharma, V. D. (1986). Antimicrobial activity of essential oils of some Ocimum spp. and clove oil. Fitoterapia., 57, 98.

Rao, B. G. U. N., & Joseph, P. L. (1971). Activity of some essential oils towards phytopathogenic fungi. Riechest Aromas Koer., 21, 405.

Ravid, V., Putievsky, E., & Katizer, I. (1994). Enantiomeric distribution of piperitone in essential oils of some mentha spp., calamintha incána (sm.) heldr. and artemisia judaica. L. Flavour Fragr. J., 9, 85.

Ravid, V., Putievsky, E., & Katizer, I. (1995). Determination of the enantiomeric composition of α-terpineol in essential oils. Flavour Fragr. J., 10, 281.

Ravid, V., Putievsky, E., & Katizer, I. (1996). stereochemical analysis of borneol in essential oils using permethylated β-cyclodextrin as a chiral stationary phase. Flavour Fragr. J., 11, 191.

Ravid, V., Putievsky, E., Katizer, I., Ikan, R., & Weinstein, V. (1992). Chiral GC analysis of (S)(+)- and (R)(−)-carvone with high enantiomeric purity in caraway, dill and spearmint oils. Flavour Fragr. J., 7, 235.

Rice, R. C., Kellar, G. J., & Kirchner, J. G. (1951). Separation and identification of 2, 4-dinitrophenylhydrazones of aldehydes and ketones, and 3,5-dinitrobenzoates of alcohols by filter-paper chromatography. Anal. Chem., 23, 194.

Santos, F. A., Cunha, G. M. A., Viana, G. B. B., Rao, V. S. N., Manoel, A. N., & Silveira, E. R. (1997). Antibacterial activity of essential oil from Psidium and Pilocarpus species of plants. Phytother Res., 11, 67.

Saraswati, A., & Dixit, V. K. (1998). Insecticidal and insect repellent activity of essential oil of Tridex procumbens. Fitoterapia., 59, 211.

Shelef, L. 1983, Antimicrobial effects of spices J. Food Safety, 6, 29 Shobana, S., Naidu, K.A. (2000). Antioxidant activity of selected Indian spices prostaglandins, leukotrienes and essential fatty acids. Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids, 62, 107-110.

Shriner, R. L., Hermann, C. K. F., Morrill, T. C., Curtin, D. Y., & Fuson, R. C. (1966). The systematic identification of organic compounds. New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc..

Shukla, R. M., Prasad, R., Chandra, M., & Saini, M. L. (1992). Evaluation of neem oil as synerzist against a malathion resistant strain of Tribolium castaneum. Plant Protect Bull, 44, 25.

Singh G., Marimuthu, P., Catalan, C., & Lampasona, M. P. (2004). Chemical, antioxidant and antifungal activities of volatile oil of black pepper and its acetone extract (Part 45). J. Sci. Food Agric., 84, 1878.

Singh, G., Kapoor, I. P. S., Pandey, S. K., Signgh, U. K., & Singh, R. K. (2002). Studies on Essential Oils Part 10: Antibacterial activity of some spices. Phytother Res., 16, 680.

Singh, G., Kapoor, I. P. S., Pandey, S. K., Singh, O. P., Singh, U. K., & Singh, R. K. (2001). Note on antibacterial activity of volatile oils of some aromatic plants. Indian Perfumer, 47, 45.

Singh, G., Kapoor, I. P. S., Pandey, S. K., Singh, U. K., & Singh, R. K. (1998). Antibacterial investigations on volatile oils of some higher plants. Indian Drugs., 35, 591.

Singh, G., Kapoor, I. P. S., Singh, O. P., Rao, G. P., Prasad, Y. R., Leclercq, P. A., & Klinkby, N. (2000). Studies on essential oil part 28: Chemical composition antifungal and insecticidal activities of rhizome volatile oil of Homalomena aromatic Schott. Flavour Fragr. J., 15, 278.

Singh, G., Kapoor, I. P. S., Singh, P., Heluani, C, & Catalon C. (2008). Chemical composition and antioxidant potential of essential oil and oleoresins from anise seeds (Pimpinella anisum L.). International J. Of Essent. Oil Therapeutics, 2, 122-130.

Singh, G., Kapoor, I. P. S., Singh, P., Heluani, C, , Lampasoma, M. P., & Catalan C. A. N. (2010). Comparative study of chemical composition and antioxidant activity of fresh and dry rhizomes of turmeric (Curcuma longa Linn.). Food and Chemical Toxicology, 48, 1026-1031.

Singh, G., Marimuthu, P., Heluani, C. S., & Catalan, C. J. (2005). Antimicrobial and antioxidant potentials of essential oil and acetone extract of Myristica fragrans houtt. (Aril Part) Food Sci., 70, 141.

Singh, G., Maurya, S., Lampasoma, M. P., & Catalan, C. (2006). Chemical constituents, antifungal, antioxidative potential of Foeniculum vulgare volatile oil and its acetone extract. Food Control, 17, 745-752.

Singh, G., Maurya, S., Lampasama M. P., & Catalan, C. (2005). Chemical, antifungal, insecticidal and antioxidative studies of Curcuma longa oil and its oleoresin. Lndian Perfumer, 49, 441-451.

Singh, G., Maurya, S., Lampasoma, M. P., & Catalan, C. (2005). Chemical constituents, antimicrobial and antioxidative potential of Anethum graveolens L. Essential oil and acetone extract. J. Food Sci., 17, 208-215.

Singh, G., Maurya, S., Lampasoma, M. P., & Catalan, C. (2005). Studies on essential oils, Part 42: Chemical, antifungal, antioxidant and sprout suppressants activity of Ginger oil and its oleoresins. Flavour and Fragrance J., 21, 472-479.

Singh, G., Maurya, S., Lampasoma, M. P., & Catalan., C. (2007). A comparison of chemical, antioxidant and antimicrobial studies of Cinnamon leaf and bark volatile oils, oleoresins and their components. J. Food and Chemical Toxicol., 45, 1650-1661.

Singh, G., Singh, O. P., Lampasona, M. P., & Catalan, C. (2003). Studies on essential oil Part 35: Chemical and biocidal investigations on Tegetes erecta leaf volatile oil. Flavour Fragr. J., 18, 62.

Singh, G., Singh, O. P., Prasad, Y. R., Lampasona, M. P., & Catalan, C. (2002). Studies on essential oils Part 33: Chemical and Insecticidal investigations of leaf volatile oil of Coleus ambionicus. Lour Flavour Fragr. J., 17, 440.

Singh, G., Singh, O. P., Rao, G. P., Singh, P. K., & Pandey, K. P. (2000). Studies on essential oil part 29: Insecticidal activity of volatile oil of higher plants and monoterpenoids against termite (Odontotermes obesus Rhamb). Sugarcane Int., 1, 18.

Singhmony, S., Anees, I., Chandrapaul, T. S., & Kaiser, J. (1990). Control of Insect pestof stored grains using black pepper seed extracts. Bull. Grain Technol., 265.

Sinha, K. K., Sinha, A. K., & Prasad, G. (1993). The effect of clove and cinnamon oils on growth andaflatoxin production by Aspergillus flavus. Lett. Appl. Microbiol., 16, 114-117.

Smith-Palmer, A., Stewart, J., & Fyfe, L. (1998). Antimicrobial properties of plant essential oils and essences against five important food-borne pathogens. Lett. Appl. Microbiol., 26, 118.

Sridhar, S. R., Rajagopal, R. V., Rajavel, R., Masilamani, S., & Narasimhan, S. (2003). Antifungal activity of some essential oils. J. Agric. Food Chem., 51, 7596.

Tajkarimi, M. M., Ibrahim, S. A., & Cliver, D. O. (2010). Antimicrobial herb and spice compounds in food. Food Control, 21(9), 1199-121.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3968%2Fj.ans.1715787020130604.1638

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Reminder

If you have already registered in Journal A and plan to submit article(s) to Journal B, please click the CATEGORIES, or JOURNALS A-Z on the right side of the "HOME".

We only use the following emails to deal with issues about paper acceptance, payment and submission of electronic versions of our journals to databases:
caooc@hotmail.com; office@cscanada.net; office@cscanada.org
ans@cscanada.net;ans@cscanada.org

Copyright © Canadian Research & Development Centre of Sciences and Cultures (CRDCSC)
Address:730, 77e AV, Laval, Quebec, H7V 4A8, Canada

Telephone: 1-514-558 6138
Http://www.cscanada.net; Http://www.cscanada.org
E-mail:caooc@hotmail.com; office@cscanada.net