Membrane Sodium Potassium Atpase Inhibition Mediated Atp Synthesis Induced by Digoxin, Photoinduction and Electromagnetic Fields

Ravikumar Kurup A., Parameswara Achutha Kurup

Abstract


Aims and Objectives: Endogenous digoxin, exposure to sunlight and electric fields can produce membrane sodium potassium ATPase inhibition. Membrane sodium potassium ATPase in the setting of digoxin induced inhibition can synthesize ATP. The membrane sodium potassium ATPase mediated ATP synthesis can serve as a source for cellular energetics. This was studied and reported in this paper.
Methodology: The following groups were included in the study: -endomyocardial fibrosis, alzheimer’s disease, multiple sclerosis, non-hodgkin’s lymphoma, metabolic syndrome x with cerebrovascular thrombosis and coronary artery disease, schizophrenia, autism, seizure disorder, creutzfeldt jakob disease and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. There were 10 patients in each group and each patient had an age and sex matched healthy control selected randomly from the general population. The blood samples were drawn in the fasting state before treatment was initiated. Membrane sodium potassium ATPase was inhibited by the addition of digoxin at concentration 1 mg/ml and exposure to sunlight and low intensity electromagnetic fields for 1 hour. The ATP synthesis by membrane sodium potassium ATPase in the inhibited state was studied.
Results: The results of the study showed increased ATP synthesis by RBC membrane sodium potassium ATPase in the presence of added digoxin, exposure to sunlight and low intensity electromagnetic fields. The added digoxin, exposure to sunlight and low intensity electromagnetic fields produce sodium potassium ATPase inhibition. Membrane sodium potassium ATPase in its inhibited state can synthesize ATP. The results are expressed as percentage change in the parameters after 1 hour incubation as compared to the values at zero time. There was RBC membrane sodium potassium ATPase mediated ATP synthesis in the patients with schizophrenia, malignancy, metabolic syndrome x, autoimmune disease and neuronal degeneration in the presence of added digoxin, exposure to sunlight and low intensity electromagnetic fields.
Conclusion: The membrane sodium potassium ATPase inhibition mediated ATP synthesis may serve as a major source of cellular energetics. The sunlight induced photic induction of membrane sodium potassium ATPase inhibition may be a primitive source of cellular energy before the evolution of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. The electromagnetic induction of membrane sodium potassium ATPase inhibition mediated ATP synthesis may also be a similar primitive source of cellular energy. The photic and electromagnetic inhibition mediated membrane sodium potassium ATPase inhibition related ATP synthesis still serves as a major source of cellular energetics despite the presence of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and anaerobic glycolysis.
Key words: Membrane sodium potassium ATPase; Digoxin; Photic induction; Electromagnetic fields; ATP synthesis

Keywords


Membrane sodium potassium ATPase; Digoxin; Photic induction; Electromagnetic fields; ATP synthesis

References


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3968%2Fj.ans.1715787020120502.1458

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