Endosymbiotic Actinidic Archaea and Viroids- Role in Metabolic/Endocrine Regulation

Ravikumar Kurup A., Parameswara Achutha Kurup

Abstract


Objective: A hypothesis regarding the role of endosymbiotic actinidic archaea and viroids in metabolic/ endocrine regulation is put forward. Endogenous digoxin has been related to the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome x with type 2 diabetes mellitus and vascular disease. Elevated digoxin levels are described in endomyocardial fibrosis and root wilt disease of coconut seen in same endemic zones with phytoplasmas, rutile and viroids important in their pathogenesis. The possibility of endogenous digoxin synthesis by actinide based primitive organism like archaea with a mevalonate pathway and cholesterol catabolism was considered. The role of archaeal derived virioids in metabolic and endocrine regulation was also evaluated. Research design and methods: 10 cases each of type 2 diabetes mellitus, coronary artery disease- acute coronary syndrome and acute cerebrovascular thrombosis before starting treatment and 10 age and sex matched healthy controls from general population were chosen for the study. The CAD and CVA patients were nondiabetics. Cholesterol substrate was added to the plasma of the patients and the generation of cytochrome F420, free RNA, free DNA, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, hydrogen peroxide, serotonin, pyruvate, ammonia, glutamate, cytochrome C, hexokinase, ATP synthase, HMG CoA redutase, digoxin and bile acids were studied. The changes with the addition of antibiotics and rutile to the patient’s plasma were also studied. The statistical analysis was done by ANOVA. Results: The parameters mentioned above were increased the patient’s plasma with addition of cholesterol substrate. The addition of antibiotics to the patient’s plasma caused a decrease in all the parameters while addition of rutile increased their levels. Conclusions: An actinide dependent shadow biosphere of archaea and viroids is described in type 2 diabetes mellitus, coronary artery disease- acute coronary syndrome and acute cerebrovascular thrombosis contributing to their pathogenesis. Endosymbiotic actinidic archaea and viroids plays a pivotal role in metabolic/endocrine regulation.

Key words: Archaea; Viroids; Cholesterol; Actinide; Metabolic and Endocrine Regulation


Keywords


Archaea; Viroids; Cholesterol; Actinide; Metabolic and Endocrine Regulation



DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3968%2Fj.ans.1715787020120501.1130

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