Endosymbiotic Actinidic Archaeal Generation of Ammonia and Thiocyanate Regulates Cell/Neuroimmunoendocrine System and Provides a Substrate for Archaeal Energetics

Ravikumar Kurup A., Parameswara Achutha Kurup

Abstract


Aims and Objectives: Actinidic archaea has been related to the pathogenesis of schizophrenia, malignancy, metabolic syndrome x, autoimmune disease and neuronal degeneration. Actinidic archaea use cholesterol as a carbon and energy source. Archaeal cholesterol catabolism mediated by archaeal cholesterol oxidase can produce cholesterol ring oxidation to generate pyruvate. Pyruvate is converted to glutamate and ammonia can be generated from it. Archaeal urease can act upon urea generating ammonia and thiocyanate. Ammonia and thiocyanate serves the purpose of cellular and neuroimmune endocrine regulation. The archaea are ammonia oxidizing and can use ammonia for their energetics. The archaeal urease activity related ammonia and thiocyanate synthesis as well as cholesterol oxidase activity generating pyruvate and ammonia was studied in schizophrenia, malignancy, metabolic syndrome x, autoimmune disease and neuronal degeneration. Methodology: The following groups were included in the study: - endomyocardial fibrosis, alzheimer’s disease, multiple sclerosis, non-hodgkin’s lymphoma, metabolic syndrome x with cerebrovascular thrombosis and coronary artery disease, schizophrenia, autism, seizure disorder, creutzfeldt jakob disease and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Plasma from fasting heparinised blood was used and the experimental protocol was as follows (I) Plasma+phosphate buffered saline, (II) same as I+cholesterol substrate, (III) same as II+rutile 0.1 mg/ml, (IV) same as II+ciprofloxacine and doxycycline each in a concentration of 1 mg/ml. The following estimations were carried out:- Cytochrome F420, hydrogen peroxide, pyruvate, ammonia, glutamate, thiocyanate and urease activity. Results: Plasma of control subjects showed increased levels of the above mentioned parameters with after incubation for 1 hour and addition of cholesterol substrate resulted in still further significant increase in these parameters. The plasma of patients showed similar results but the extent of increase was more. The addition of antibiotics to the control plasma caused a decrease in all the parameters while addition of rutile increased their levels. The addition of antibiotics and rutile to the patient’s plasma produced the same changes but the extent of change was more in patient’s sera as compared to controls. Conclusion: An actinide dependent shadow biosphere of archaea and viroids in the above mentioned disease states is described. The archaeal urease generates thiocyanate and ammonia. The archaeal cholesterol oxidase catabolises cholesterol to generate pyruvate which is converted to glutamate and ammonia. Ammonia functions as a possible gasotransmitter in the brain. Ammonia can regulate mitochondrial function, membrane sodium potassium ATPase activity and immunity. It plays a role in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia, malignancy, metabolic syndrome x, autoimmune disease and neuronal degeneration. Ammonia and thiocyanate serves the purpose of cellular/neuroimmuneendocrine regulation. The archaea can utilize ammonia oxidation for energetics.

Key words: Actinides; Archaea; Urease; Cholesterol Oxidase; Ammonia; Thiocyanate


Keywords


Actinides; Archaea; Urease; Cholesterol Oxidase; Ammonia; Thiocyanate



DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3968%2Fj.ans.1715787020120501.1125

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