Endosymbiotic Actinidic Archaeal Generation of Ammonia and Thiocyanate Regulates Cell/Neuroimmunoendocrine System and Provides a Substrate for Archaeal Energetics
Aims and Objectives: Actinidic archaea has been related to the pathogenesis of schizophrenia, malignancy, metabolic syndrome x, autoimmune disease and neuronal degeneration. Actinidic archaea use cholesterol as a carbon and energy source. Archaeal cholesterol catabolism mediated by archaeal cholesterol oxidase can produce cholesterol ring oxidation to generate pyruvate. Pyruvate is converted to glutamate and ammonia can be generated from it. Archaeal urease can act upon urea generating ammonia and thiocyanate. Ammonia and thiocyanate serves the purpose of cellular and neuroimmune endocrine regulation. The archaea are ammonia oxidizing and can use ammonia for their energetics. The archaeal urease activity related ammonia and thiocyanate synthesis as well as cholesterol oxidase activity generating pyruvate and ammonia was studied in schizophrenia, malignancy, metabolic syndrome x, autoimmune disease and neuronal degeneration. Methodology: The following groups were included in the study: - endomyocardial fibrosis, alzheimer’s disease, multiple sclerosis, non-hodgkin’s lymphoma, metabolic syndrome x with cerebrovascular thrombosis and coronary artery disease, schizophrenia, autism, seizure disorder, creutzfeldt jakob disease and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Plasma from fasting heparinised blood was used and the experimental protocol was as follows (I) Plasma+phosphate buffered saline, (II) same as I+cholesterol substrate, (III) same as II+rutile 0.1 mg/ml, (IV) same as II+ciprofloxacine and doxycycline each in a concentration of 1 mg/ml. The following estimations were carried out:- Cytochrome F420, hydrogen peroxide, pyruvate, ammonia, glutamate, thiocyanate and urease activity. Results: Plasma of control subjects showed increased levels of the above mentioned parameters with after incubation for 1 hour and addition of cholesterol substrate resulted in still further significant increase in these parameters. The plasma of patients showed similar results but the extent of increase was more. The addition of antibiotics to the control plasma caused a decrease in all the parameters while addition of rutile increased their levels. The addition of antibiotics and rutile to the patient’s plasma produced the same changes but the extent of change was more in patient’s sera as compared to controls. Conclusion: An actinide dependent shadow biosphere of archaea and viroids in the above mentioned disease states is described. The archaeal urease generates thiocyanate and ammonia. The archaeal cholesterol oxidase catabolises cholesterol to generate pyruvate which is converted to glutamate and ammonia. Ammonia functions as a possible gasotransmitter in the brain. Ammonia can regulate mitochondrial function, membrane sodium potassium ATPase activity and immunity. It plays a role in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia, malignancy, metabolic syndrome x, autoimmune disease and neuronal degeneration. Ammonia and thiocyanate serves the purpose of cellular/neuroimmuneendocrine regulation. The archaea can utilize ammonia oxidation for energetics.
Key words: Actinides; Archaea; Urease; Cholesterol Oxidase; Ammonia; Thiocyanate
- There are currently no refbacks.
How to do online submission to another Journal?
If you have already registered in Journal A, then how can you submit another article to Journal B? It takes two steps to make it happen:
1. Register yourself in Journal B as an Author
Find the journal you want to submit to in CATEGORIES, click on “VIEW JOURNAL”, “Online Submissions”, “GO TO LOGIN” and “Edit My Profile”. Check “Author” on the “Edit Profile” page, then “Save”.
Go to “User Home”, and click on “Author” under the name of Journal B. You may start a New Submission by clicking on “CLICK HERE”.
We only use the following emails to deal with issues about paper acceptance, payment and submission of electronic versions of our journals to databases:
email@example.com; firstname.lastname@example.org; email@example.com
Copyright © Canadian Research & Development Centre of Sciences and Cultures (CRDCSC)
Address: 9375 Rue de Roissy Brossard, Québec, J4X 3A1, Canada
Telephone: 1-514-558 6138