Person-Centered Therapy and Older Adults’ Self-Esteem: A Pilot Study with Follow-up
Objectives: A higher self-esteem (SE) is suggested by a reduced difference between ideal and real self. The present pilot study was designed to investigate if a brief eight-session individual person-centered therapy (PCT) intervention on older adults can promote their SE, as compared with a control group (waiting list). We hypothesized that participants randomized to PCT would report improvements in SE from pre- to post-intervention compared to those not attending PCT sessions. Method: We recruited 81 persons aged between 65-82 years (M = 71.9, SD = 4.77) in the Great Lisbon area, in Portugal and randomized 40 to PCT and 41 to control group. The PCT intervention consisted of an eight weekly individual therapy. Measures were completed, including demographics and the Self-esteem Scale (SES) at the baseline, post-treatment and at the 12-month follow-up. Results: Findings indicated that individual PCT with older adults may improve their SE. The difference between ideal self and real self, evidenced at follow-up (M = 1.251, SD = .524) by the participants who had undergone PCT, was significantly lower (41.3%) in comparison to the baseline score (M = 2.131, SD = .799). Additionally, significant differences between the intervention group and the control group were found in the post-intervention and follow-up. Estimates were statistically significant at .05 level. Conclusions: Results suggest that PCT is beneficial for improving SE. Clinical practice and program development in therapeutic settings may benefit from including PCT as an important component for promoting SE in older adults and for aging well.
Key words: Person-centered therapy; Control group; Follow-up; Older adults; Self-esteem
Abood, D. A., & Conway, T. L. (1992). Health Value and Self-Esteem as Predictors of Wellness Behavior. Health Values, 16, 20-26.
Asay, T., & Lambert, M. (1999). The Empirical Case for the Common Factors. In M. Hubble, B. Duncan, & S. Miller (Eds.). The Heart and Soul of Change (pp. 23-55). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/11132-001
Baltes, P. B., & Smith, J. (2003). New Frontiers in the Future of Aging: From Successful Aging of the Young Old to the Dilemmas of the Fourth Age. Gerontology, 49, 123-135. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000067946
Barrett-Lennard, G. T. (2007). The Relational Foundations of Person-Centered Practice. In M. Cooper, M. O’Hara, P. F. Schmid, & G. Wyatt (Eds.). The Handbook of Person-Centered Psychotherapy and Counseling (pp. 127-139). New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan.
Baumeister, R. F., Campbell, J. D., Krueger, J. I, & Vohs, K. D. (2003). Does High Self-Esteem Cause Better Performance, Interpersonal Success, Happiness, or Healthier Lifestyles? Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 4(1), 1-44. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1529-1006.01431
Bernard, L. C., Hutchison, S., Lavin, A., & Pennington, P. (1996). Ego-Strength, Hardiness, Self-Esteem, Self-Efficacy, Optimism, and Maladjustment: Health-Related Personality Constructs and the “Big Five” Model of Personality Assessment. Psychological Assessment Resources, Inc: US, 3(2), 115-131.
Blascovich, J., & Tomaka, J. (1991). Measures of Self-Esteem. In J. P. Robinson, P. R. Shaver, & L. S. Wrightsman (Eds.). Measures of Personality and Social Psychological Attitudes, Volume I. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
Bozarth, J. D. (2002). Nondirectivity in the Person-Centered Approach: Critique of Kahn’s Critique. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 42, 78-83. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0022167802422007
Branden, N. (1969). The Psychology of Self-Esteem. California: Jossey-Bass.
Brodley, B. T. (1997). The Nondirective Attitude in Client-Centered Therapy. The Person-Centered Journal, 4, 18-30.
Burwell, R. A., & Shirk, S. R. (2006). Self Processes in Adolescent Depression: The Role of Self-Worth Contingencies. Journal of Research Adolescence, 16(3), 479-490. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1532-7795.2006.00503.x
Campbell, A. (1981). The Sense of Well-Being in America: Recent Patterns and Trends. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Cooper, M., & McLeod, J. (2011). Person-Centered Therapy: A Pluralistic Perspective. Person-Centered and Experiential Psychotherapies, 10(3), 210-223. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14779757.2011.599517
Crocker, J., & Park, L.E. (2004). The Costly Pursuit of Self-Esteem. Psychological Bulletin, 130(3), 392-414. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.130.3.392
Diener, E., & Diener. M. (1995). Cross-Cultural Correlates of Life Satisfaction and Self-Esteem. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 68, 653-663. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1037//0022-35184.108.40.2063
Emler, N (2001). Self-Esteem. The Costs and Causes of Low Self-Worth. Joseph Rowntree Foundation, York Publishing Services Ltd: Layerthorpe.
Fernández-Ballesteros, R. (2007). Gero Psychology: European Perspectives for an Aging World. Gottingen: Hogrefe and Huber.
Fennell, M. J. V. (1998). Low Self-Esteem. In N. Tarrier, A. Wells, & G. Haddock (Eds.). Treating Complex Cases: The Cognitive Behavioural Therapy Approach. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/0-306-48581-8_66
Ford, A. B., Haug, M. R., Stange, K. C., Gaines, A. D., Noelker, L. S., & Jones, P. K. (2000). Sustained Personal Autonomy: A Measure of Successful Aging. Journal Aging Health, 12, 470-489. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/089826430001200402
Gana, K., Alaphilippe, D., & Bailly, N. (2004). Positive Illusions and Mental and Physical Health in Later Life. Aging & Mental Health, 8, 58-64.
Gavrilov, L. A., & Heuveline, P. (2003). Aging of Population. In P. Demeny & G. McNicoll (Eds.). The Encyclopedia of Population. New York: Macmillan Reference USA. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4020-8356-3_6
Greenberg, J. (2008). Understanding the Vital Human Quest for Self-Esteem. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 3, 48-55. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-6916.2008.00061.x
Hall, P. L., & Tarrier, N. (2003). The Cognitive-Behavioural Treatment of Low Self-Esteem in Psychotic Patients: A Pilot Study. Behaviour Research & Therapy, 41, 317-332. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0005-7967(02)00013-X
Hamarat, E., Thompson, D., Steele, D., Matheny, K., & Simons, C. (2002). Age Differences in Coping Resources and Satisfaction with Life Among Middle-Aged, Young-Old and Oldest-Old Adults. The Journal of Genetic Psychology, 163, 360-367. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00221320209598689
Higgins, E. T. (1987). Self-discrepancy: A Theory Relating Self and Affect. Psychological Review, 94(3), 319-340. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1037//0033-295X.94.3.319
Higgins, E. T. (1989). Self-discrepancy Theory: What Patterns of Selfbeliefs Cause People to Suffer? In L. Berkowitz (Ed.). Advances in Experimental Social Psychology (Vol. 22, pp. 93-136). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
Hurd, L. C. (2000). Older Women’s Body Image and Embodied Experience: An Exploration. Journal of Women and Aging, 12, 77-97. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J074v12n03_06
Instituto Nacional Estatística. (2005). Projecções da população residente, NUTS III-2000-2050 [Projections for the Residente Population, NUTS III-2000-2050]. Lisboa: DECP /Serviço de estudos sobre a população.
Knox, R., & Cooper, M. (2010). Relationship Qualities That Are Associated with Moments of Relational Depth: The Client’s Perspective. Person-Centered and Experiential Psychotherapies, 9(3), 236-256. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14779757.2010.9689069
Kottler, J. A., Sexton, T. L., & Whiston, S. C. (1994). The Heart of Healing: Relationships in Therapy. San Francisco: John Wiley & Sons Inc..
Kuster, F., Orth, U., & Meier, L. L. (2012). Rumination Mediates the Prospective Effect of Low Self-Esteem on Depression: A Five-Wave Longitudinal Study. Personality and SocialPsychology Bulletin, 38(6), 747-759. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0146167212437250
Lynch, M. F., La Guardia, J. G., & Ryan, R. M. (2009). On Being Yourself in Different Cultures: Ideal and Actual Self-Concept, Autonomy Support, and Well-Being in China, Russia, and the United States. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 4, 290-304. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17439760902933765
Levitt, B. (2005). Embracing Non-Directivity: Reassessing Person-Centered Theory and Practice in the 21st Century. Ross-on-Wye: PCCS Books.
Lih-Mei Liao, K., Hunter, M. & Weinman, J. (1995). Health-Related Behaviours and Their Correlates in a General Population Sample of 45-Year Old Women. Psychology Health, 10(3), 171-184. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08870449508401947
Masson, J. M. (1988, 1994). Against Therapy. Monroe, Maine: Common Courage Press. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0145-2126(02)00327-2
Maxfield, M., Solomon, S., Pyszczynski, T., & Greenberg, J. (2010). Mortality Salience Effects on the Life Expectancy Estimates of Older Adults as a Function of Neuroticism. Journal of Ageing Research, 260123. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.4061/2010/260123
Mearns, D., & Schmid, P. F. (2006). Being-with and Being-Counter: Relational Depth: The Challenge of Fully Meeting the Client. Person-Centered and Experiential Psychotherapies, 5(4), 255-265. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14779757.2006.9688417
Mecca, A. M., Smelser, N. J., & Vasconcellos, J. (1989). The Social Importance of Self-Esteem. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Moody, H. (2010). Aging: Concepts and Controversies (6th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Pine Forge Press. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03601270701328862
Mruk, C. (2006). Self-Esteem Research, Theory, and Practice: Toward a Positive Psychology of Self-Esteem (3rd ed.). New York: Springer.
Orth, U., Robins, R. W., & Roberts, B. W. (2008). Low Self-Esteem Prospectively Predicts Depression in Adolescence and Young Adulthood. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 95(3), 695-708. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-35220.127.116.115
Patterson, C. H. (1984). Empathy, Warmth and Genuineness in Psychotherapy. A Review of Reviews. Psychotherapy, 21, 431-438. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0085985
Pörtner, M. (2008). Being Old Is Different: Person-Centred Care for Old People. Ross-on-Wye, UK: PCCS Book.
Proctor, G. (2002). The Dynamics of Power in Counselling and Psychotherapy. Llangarron Ross-on-Wye, UK: PCCS Books.
Prouty G., Van Werde D., & Portner M. (2002). Pre-Therapy: Reaching Contact-Impaired Clients. Ross-on-Wye: PCCS Books.
Rafael, G. (2003/2004). O Assistente Social, O Estudante universitário e Rogers: Um estudo sobre a auto-estima e as estratégias de coping realizado com estudantes da Universidade do Algarve [The Social Assistant, the University Student and Rogers: A Study About Self-Esteem and Coping Strategies with Students from the University of the Algarve]. Pessoa como Centro Revista de Estudos Rogerianos, 11/12, 37-50.
Rivas-Torres, R. M., & Fernandez-Fernandez, P. (1995). Self-Esteem and Value of Health a Determinants of Adolescent Health Behavior. Journal of Adolescent Health, 16, 60-63.
Rodewalt, F., & Tragakis, M. W. (2003). Self-Esteem and Self-Regulation: Toward Optimal Studies of Self-Esteem. Psychological Inquiry, 14(1), 66-70.
Rogers, C. (1951). Client-Centered Therapy: Its Current Practice, Implications and Theory. London: Constable.
Rogers, C. R. (1959). A Theory of Therapy, Personality and Interpersonal Relationships, as Developed in the Client-Centered Framework. In S. Koch (Ed.). Psychology: A Study of Science (pp. 184-256). New York, NY: McGraw Hill.
Rogers, C. R., & Dymond, R. (1954). Psychotherapy and Personality Change. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/002076405500100106
Rogers, C., R., & Kinget, G. (1977). Psicoterapia e Relações Humanas [Psychotherapy and Human Relations]. Belo Horizonte: Interlivros.
Rogers, C. R. (1980). Client-Centered Psychotherapy. In H. I. Kaplan & B. J. Sadock (Eds.). Comprehensive Textbook of Psychiatry. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/scientificamerican1152-66
Rosenberg, M. (1965). Society and the Adolescent Self-Image. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2000). Self-Determination Theory and the Facilitation of Intrinsic Motivation, Social Development, and Wellbeing. American Psychologist, 55, 68-78.
Sanders, P. (2007). Introduction to the Theory of Person-Centred Therapy. In M. Cooper, M. O’Hara, P. F. Schmid, & G. Wyatt (Eds.). The Handbook of Person-Centered Psychotherapy and Counseling (pp. 9-18). New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan.
Schmid, P. F. (2002). Presence: Immediate Co-experiencing and Co-responding. Phenomenological, Dialogical and Ethical Perspectives on Contact and Perception in Person-Centred Therapy and Beyond. In G. Wyatt & P. Sanders (Eds.). Rogers’ Therapeutic Conditions: Evolution, Theory and Practice. Vol 4: Contact and Perception (pp. 182-203). Ross-on-Wye: PCCS Books.
Sedikides, C., & Gregg. A. P. (2003). Portraits of the Self. In M. A. Hogg, & J. Cooper (Eds.). Sage Handbook of Social Psychology. London: Sage Publications.
Sexton, T. L. (1996). The Relevance of Counseling Outcome Research: Current Trends and Practical Implications. Journal of Counseling & Development, 74, 590-600. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/j.1556-6676.1996.tb02298.x
Šmídová, J., Hátlová, B., & Stochl, J. (2008). Global Self Esteem in a Sample of Czech Seniors and Adolescents. Acta Univ Palacki Olomuc Gymn, 38(4), 31-37.
Staats, S. (1996). Youthful and Older Biases as Special Cases of Self-Age Optimization Bias. International Journal of Aging and Human Development, 43, 267-276. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.2190/DLVQ-BYE7-X5QX-11R9
Stamatakis, K. A., Lynch, J., Everson, S. A., Raghunathan, T., Salonen, J. T., & Kaplan, G. A. (2003). Self-Esteem and Mortality: Prospective Evidence from a Population-Based Study. AEP, 14(1), 58-65. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1047-2797(03)00078-4
Swann, W. B., Jr., Chang-Schneider, C., & McClarty, K. L. (2007). Do People’s Self-Views Matter? Self-Concept and Self-Esteem in Everyday Life. American Psychologist, 62, 84-94. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.62.2.84
Tap, P., Hipolito, J., Nunes, O., & Santos, R. (2004). Validação Portuguesa das escala de estima de si de Rogers [Portuguese Validation of the Rogers Scale of Self-Esteem and the Toulouse New Scale of Self-Esteem]. 9° Conference of the European Association for Research on adolescence. Book of Abstracts, 16-16.
Temaner, B. S. (1977). The Empathic Understanding Response Process. Chicago Counseling Center Discussion Paper.
von Humboldt, S. & Leal, I. (2010). A promoção do grau de auto-estima dos idosos: O efeito da relação de ajuda [Promoting Older Adults’ Self-Esteem: The Effects of Therapy]. In Saúde, Sexualidade e Género. I. Leal, J. L. Pais Ribeiro, M. Marques & F. Pimenta (Eds.). Actas do 8º Congresso Nacional de Psicologia da Saúde (pp. 889-894). Lisboa: ISPA Edições.
von Humboldt, S. & Leal. I., & Pimenta, F. (2012). Adjustment and Age Through the Eyes of Portuguese and English Community-Dwelling Older Adults. Studies in Sociology of Science, 3(3), 1-9. ISSN: 1923-0176. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.3968/j.sss.1923018420120303.1544
Watson, J., & Lilova, S. (2009). Testing the Reliability and Validity of the Scales for Experiencing Emotion with a Canadian Sample. Person-Centered & Experiential Psychotherapies Journal, 8(3), 189-207. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14779757.2009.9688488
Westerhof, G. J., Barrett, A., & Steverink, N. (2003). Forever Young: A Comparison of Age Identities in the United States and Germany. Research on Aging, 25(4), 366-384. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0164027503025004002
Westerhof, G. J., Whitbourne, S. K., & Freeman, G. P. (2012). The Aging Self in a Cultural Context: The Relation of Conceptions of Aging to Identity Processes and Self-Esteem in the United States and the Netherlands. The Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 67B(1), 52-60. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/geronb/gbr075
Witty, M. (2004). The Difference Directiveness Makes: The Ethics and Consequences of Guidance in Psychotherapy. The Person-Centered Journal, 11, 22-32.
Witty, M. (2005). Non-Directiveness and the Problem of Influence. In B. E. Levitt (Ed.). Embracing Non-Directivity: Reassessing Person-Centered Theory and Practice in the 21st Century (pp. 228-247). Ross-on-Wye, UK: PCCS Books.
World Health Organization. (2008). Age Friendly Cities: Global Ageing and Urbanization Are Successes of Humanity. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/ageing/age_friendly_cities/en/index.html
World Health Organization Quality of Life Assessment Group. (2011). World Health Statistics 2011. Geneve, Switzerland: Author.
- There are currently no refbacks.
How to do online submission to another Journal?
If you have already registered in Journal A, then how can you submit another article to Journal B? It takes two steps to make it happen:
1. Register yourself in Journal B as an Author
Find the journal you want to submit to in CATEGORIES, click on “VIEW JOURNAL”, “Online Submissions”, “GO TO LOGIN” and “Edit My Profile”. Check “Author” on the “Edit Profile” page, then “Save”.
Go to “User Home”, and click on “Author” under the name of Journal B. You may start a New Submission by clicking on “CLICK HERE”.
We only use three mailboxes as follows to deal with issues about paper acceptance, payment and submission of electronic versions of our journals to databases:
email@example.com; firstname.lastname@example.org; email@example.com
Copyright © 2010 Canadian Research & Development Centre of Sciences and Cultures
Address: 730, 77e AV, Laval, Quebec, H7V 4A8, Canada
Telephone: 1-514-558 6138