War Termination in Sri Lanka
This article has a central aim of explaining the catastrophic loss of civilian life in the last five months of the civil war in Sri Lanka. The article proposes that both the government of Sri Lanka (GoSL) and the LTTE are culpable for civilian deaths; the LTTE in an effort to stave off defeat so it might be able to re-constitute itself at a later time, and the GoSL in a determination not to allow the LTTE as an organization to survive the conflict. The article also argues that a preliminary explanation for the origins of the Sri Lankan civil war can be found in the GoSL program of transferring members of the Sinhalese population into the Northern and Eastern provinces of the country, regions held by the Tamil population to be their homeland territory.
Key words: Population; Tamil; Sinhalese insurgency; Civilian; Territory
Amarasinghe, Udeshi, & Thilini Kahandawaarachchi (2009). Defence Secretary Gotabaya Rajapaksa Salutes the War Heroes. Business Today. Retrieved from http://www.businesstoday.lk/?issue=211
Amnesty International. (2009a). Civilians Trapped by Sri Lankan Conflict. Retrieved from http://www.amnesty.org/en/news-and-updates/news/civilians-trapped-sri-lanka-conflict-20
Amnesty International. (2009b). Sri Lanka: Government, Tigers Should Declare Temporary Truce and Open Humanitarian Corridors to Get Civilians Out, Aid In. News. Retrieved from http://www.amnesty.org/en/for- media/press-releases/sri-lanka-government-tigers-should-d
Amnesty International. (2009c). Stop the War on Civilians in Sri Lanka: A Briefing on the Humanitarian Crisis and Lack of Human Rights Protection. ASA 37/004/2009. Retrieved from http://www.amnesty.org/en/for-media/press-releases/sri-lanka-government-tigers should-d
Amnesty International. (2009d). Civilian Casualties Rising in Sri Lanka Conflict. News. Retrieved from http://www.amnesty.org/en/news-and-updatess/news/civilian-casualties-rising-sri-lanka-con
Buchanan, Allen (1997). Theories of Secession. Philosophy and Public Affairs, 26(1), 31-61. doi: 10.1111/j.1088-4963.1997.tb00049.x
Bush, Kenneth D. (1993). Reading Between the Lines: Intra-Group Heterogeneity and Conflict in Sri Lanka. Refuge, 13(3), 15-22.
Chandrasekharan, S.L. (2004). Current Situation: The Broad Picture. South Asia Analysis Group, (245). Retrieved from http://www.saag.org
Darby, John, & Roger MacGinty (Eds.) (2003). Contemporary Peace Making: Conflict, Violence and Peace Processes. London: Palgrave-MacMillan.
Devotta, Neil (2007). Sinhalese Buddhist Nationalist Strategy: Implications for Politics and Conflict Resolution in Sri Lanka. Policy Studies, 40.
Esman, Milton J. (1990). Political & Psychological Factors in Ethnic Conflict. In Joseph Montville (Ed.), Conflict and Peacekeeping in Multiethnic Societies (pp. 53-64). Lexington, MA : Lexington Books.
Federal, Party (1974). Ilankai Tamil Arasu Kadchi Silver Anniversary Volume. Jaffna.
Ganguly, Rajat (2004). Sri Lanka’s Ethnic Conflict: At a Crossroad Between Peace and War. Third World Quarterly, 25(5), 903-918.
Geneva Conventions (1949). Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, Geneva Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded and Sick in Armed Forces in the Field, 75 UNTS 31; Geneva Convention for the Amelioration of the Wounded, Sick and Shipwrecked Members of the Armed Forces at Sea, 75 UNTS 85; Geneva Convention Relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War, 75 UNTS 135; Geneva Convention Relative to the Protection of Civilian in Time of War, 75 UNTS 287.
Government of Sri Lanka. (2005). Peace in Sri Lanka: Interim Authority Within Context of Permanent Settlement. Press Release. Retrieved from http://www.peaceinsrilanka.org/insidepages/Pressrelease.GOSLreleases/GOSLmediaRel 040305.asp
Government of Sri Lanka. (2009). We Give Highest Priority to Civilian Safety: President Rajapaksa. Archives. Retrieved from http://www.priu.gov.lk/
Hellman-Rajanayagam, Dagmar (1990). The Concept of a “Tamil Homeland” in Sri Lanka: Its Meaning and Development. South Asia, 13(2), 79-110.
Human Rights Watch. (2009a). Sri Lanka: Government Admission Shows Need for UN Inquiry. News. Retrieved from http://www.hrw.org/en/news/2009/27/sri-lanka-government-admission-shows-need-un-
Human Rights Watch. (2009b). Sri Lanka: Disregard for Civilian Safety Appalling. Retrieved from http://www.hrw.org/en/news/2009/02/03/sri-lanka-disregard-civilian-safety-appalling?print
International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR). U.N. Doc S/Res/955, 32 I.L.M. 1602. (1994)
International Criminal Tribunal for the Prosecution of Persons Responsible for Serious Violations of International Humanitarian Law in the Territory of the Former Yugoslav Republic Since 1991 (ICTY). 32 I.L.M. 1192 (1993)
International Criminal Tribunal for the Prosecution of Persons Responsible for Serious Violations of International Humanitarian Law in the Territory of the Former Yugoslavia. (ICTY). Prosecutor v. Strugar. Case No. IT-01-42-T (ICTY Trial Chamber ). Judgment, at para. 240, 31 January, 2005.
International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC). (2009a). Sri Lanka: Major Humanitarian Crisis Unfolding. News Release, 9(29). Retrieved from http://www.un.lk.media_center/archived.php
ICRC. (2009b). Sri Lanka: Thousands of Civilians Still Trapped. Operational Update, 9(3). Retrieved from http://www.icrc/org/eng/resources/documents/update/sri-lanka-update-300409.htm
ICRC. (2009c). Sri Lanka: Humanitarian Assistance Can No Longer Reach Civilians. News Release, 9(103). Retrieved from http://www.icrc.org./eng/resources/result/index.jsp
ICRC. (2011a). IHL. Charter of the Nuremburg Tribunal and in the Judgment of the Tribunal, 1950. Retrieved from http://www.icrc.org/ihl.nsf/FULL/390?OpenDocument
ICRC. (2011b). Geneva Conventions, 1949, Convention IV Relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War, Geneva. Retrieved from http://www.icrc.org/ihl.nsf/FULL/3890?OpenDocument
ICRC. (2011c). IHL, Treaties and Documents, Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. Retrieved from http://www.ircr.org/ihl.nsf/FULL/585?OpenDocument
International Crisis Group. (2006). Sri Lanka: The Failure of the Peace Process. Asia Report, (12). Retrieved from http://www.crisisgroup.org
International Crisis Group. (2007). Sri Lanka: Sinhala Nationalism and the Elusive Southern Consensus. Asia Report, (141). Retrieved from http://www.crisisweb.org
International Crisis Group. (2008a). Sri Lanka’s Return to War: Limiting the Damage. Asia Report, (146). Retrieved from http://www.crisisweb.org
International Crisis Group. (2008b). Sri Lanka’s Eastern Province: Land, Development, Conflict. Asia Report, (159). Retrieved from http://www.crisisweb.org
International Crisis Group. (2010). War Crimes in Sri Lanka. Asia Report, (191). Retrieved from http://www.crisisweb.org
Jubair, Salah (1997). A Nation Under Endless Tyranny (2nd ed.). Lahore, Pakistan: Islamic Research Academy.
Kelman, Herbert (1997). Negotiating National Identity and Self-determination in Ethnic Conflicts: The Choice Between Pluralism and Ethnic Cleansing. Negotiation Journal, 13(4), 327-340. doi: 10.1111/j.1571-9979.1997.tb00137.x
Korf, Benedict, & Hartmut Fünfgeld (2006). War and the Commons: Assessing the Changing Politics of Violence, Access and Entitlements in Sri Lanka. Geoforum, 37, 391-403 (citing Rösel, J. 1997. Der Bürgerkrieg auf Sri Lanka. Nomos, Baden-Baden; and UTHR-J. 1993). From Manal Aru to Weli Oya and the Spirit of July 1983. Special Report No. 5, University Teachers for Human Rights (Jaffna), Retrieved from http://www.uthr.org/Special Reports/spreport5.htm
Kronstadt, K.Alan, & Vaughn, Bruce (2009). Sri Lanka: Background and U.S. Relations. Congressional Research Service Report for Congress (RL 31707).
Lankanewspapers.com. (2006). Closure of Sluice Gates “Caused an Escalation of Violence.” Sri Lanka Monitoring Mission Report. Retrieved from http://www.lankanewspapers.com/news/2006/9/8717.html
Lewer, Nick, & Joe, William (2002). Sri Lanka: Finding a Negotiated End to Twenty-Five Years of Violence. Searching for Peace in Central and South Asia, The Hague: Netherlands. Global Partnership for the Prevention of Armed Conflict, pp. 1-10. Retrieved from http://www.conflict-prevention.net/page.php?id=40&formid=73&action=show&surveyid
Miller, David (1998). Secession and the Principle of Nationality. In Margaret Moore (Ed.), National Determination and Secession (pp. 62-78). Oxford : Oxford University Press.
Moore, Mick (1985). The State and Peasant Politics in Sri Lanka. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Oberst, Robert C. (1996). (Tamil) Tigers and the Lion: the Evolution of Sri Lanka’s War. Harvard International Review, 18(3), 32-36.
Orientlicher, Diane (1998). Democracy and Difference: Democratic Rights and Separatist Claims. Trilateral Perspectives on International Legal Issues: From Theory into Practice. American Society of International Law, Transitional Publishers.
Peebles, Patrick (1990). Colonization and Ethnic Conflict in the Dry Zone in Sri Lanka. The Journal of Asian Studies, 49(1), 30-55. doi: 10.2307/2058432
Pfaffenberger, Bryan (1987). Sri Lanka in 1986: A Nation at the Crossroads. Asian Survey, 4(2),157. doi: 10.1525/as.1987.27.2.01p0025t
Quimpo, Nathan Gilbert. (2001). Options in Pursuit of a Just, Comprehensive, and Stable Peace. Asian Survey, 41(2), 271-289. doi: 10.1525/as.2001.41.2.271
Rajapaksa Inaugural (2005). Victory for Sri Lanka. Mahinda Chintana. Retrieved from http://www.priu.lk/mahindachintana/MahaindaChinthanaEnglishpdf.
Rome Statue. Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. 2187 U.N.T.S. 90; 37 I.L.M. 1002. (1998)
Ridenour, Ron (2009). The Tamils and Equal Rights or Self-Determination. Sri Lanka Guardian. Retrieved from http://www.srilankanguardian.org/2009/11/tamils-and-equal-rights-or-self.html
Rothbart, Daniel, & Karina V. Korostelina (2011). Why They Die. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.
Sivanendran. (2011). Sri Lanka: Last Phase of Civil War at Mullivaikal: What Happened Really? South Asia Analysis Group, (4456). Retrieved from http://www.southasiaanalys.org/papers45/paper4456.html
Skynews. (2009). Skynews Interview. Retrieved from http://wn.con.com/Gotabaya_Rajapaska
Sri Lanka Foundation. (2011). India Halted ’87 War. Retrieved from http://www.srilankafoundation.lk/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=985&c
Sri Lankan Guardian. (2011). Operation Liberation One. Retrieved from http://www.srilankaguardian.org/2009/07/operation-liberation-one.html
Ubaysiri, Kasun (2006). Failed Peace Talks. South Asia Analysis Group, (1856). Retrieved from http://www.southasiaanalysis.org/%5Cpaperts19%5Cpaper1856.html
U.N. High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR). (2001). Sri Lanka Country Report. Retrieved from http://www.unhcr.org/refworld/pdfid/402d09a94.pdf
U.N. Secretary-General. (2011). Report of the Secretary General’s Panel of Experts on Accountability in Sri Lanka. Retrieved from http://www.un.org/dh/infocus/Sri_Lanka/POE_Report_Full.pdf
U.S. Department of State. (2009). Report to Congress on Incidents During the Recent Conflict in Sri Lanka. Retrieved from http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/131025.pdf
Waldman, Amy (2002). Sri Lanka to Explore a New Government. New York Times, 2.
- There are currently no refbacks.
How to do online submission to another Journal?
If you have already registered in Journal A, then how can you submit another article to Journal B? It takes two steps to make it happen:
1. Register yourself in Journal B as an Author
Find the journal you want to submit to in CATEGORIES, click on “VIEW JOURNAL”, “Online Submissions”, “GO TO LOGIN” and “Edit My Profile”. Check “Author” on the “Edit Profile” page, then “Save”.
Go to “User Home”, and click on “Author” under the name of Journal B. You may start a New Submission by clicking on “CLICK HERE”.
We only use three mailboxes as follows to deal with issues about paper acceptance, payment and submission of electronic versions of our journals to databases:
email@example.com; firstname.lastname@example.org; email@example.com
Copyright © 2010 Canadian Research & Development Centre of Sciences and Cultures
Address: 730, 77e AV, Laval, Quebec, H7V 4A8, Canada
Telephone: 1-514-558 6138