Resisting Dominant Discourses of Femininity in a Working-Class Junior School
This paper describes different types of femininity within one working class UK junior school. The fieldwork took place between 1998-99 and the data come from observations and a series of interviews with twelve 10-11-year-old girls. The paper attempts to go beyond using typologies and argues that femininities are more nuanced and malleable, and also temporal and situated. Although all the forms of femininity were constructed through the heterosexual matrix, the findings differ from the work of other researchers in that only two girls attempted to perform Connell’s (1987) ‘emphasised’ form of femininity, and the others were able to resist this dominant discourse.
Adler, P., Kless, & Adler, P. (1992). Socialization to gender roles: Popularity among elementary school boys and girls. Sociology of Education, 65, 169-187.
Allan, A. J. (2009). The importance of being a ‘lady’: Hyper-femininity and heterosexuality in the private, single-sex primary school. Gender and Education, 21, 145-158.
Ali, S. (2000). “Mixed Race” children, identity and schools (Unpublished PhD thesis). University of London, Institute of Education.
Anderson, E. (2005). Orthodox and inclusive masculinity: Competing masculinities among heterosexual men in a feminized terrain. Sociological Perspectives, 48, 337–355.
Anderson, E. (2008). Inclusive masculinity in a fraternal setting. Men and Masculinities, 10, 604-620.
Archer, l., Halsall, A., & Hollingworth, S. (2007). Inner-city femininities and education: ‘Race’, class, gender and schooling in young women’s lives. Gender and Education, 19, 549-568.
Butler, J. (1990). Gender trouble: Feminism and the subversion of identity. London: Routledge.
Clark, c., & Paechter (2007). ‘Why can’t girls play football?’ Gender dynamics and the playground. Sport. Education and Society, 12, 261-276.
Connell, R. W. (1987). Gender and power: Society, the person and sexual politics. Cambridge: Polity Press.
Connell, R. W. (2002). Gender. Cambridge: Polity Press.
Connell, R. W. (2002). Gender. Cambridge: Polity Press.
Connolly, P. (1998). Racism, gender identities and young children: Social relations in a multi-ethnic, inner-city primary school. London: Routledge.
Davies, B. (1989). Frogs and snails and feminist tails: Pre-school children and gender. Sydney: Allen and Unwin.
DePalma, R., & Atkinson, E. (2009). The continuing dialogue about sexualities and schooling. Sex education: Sexuality, society and learning, 9, 125-127.
Eliasson, M. A., Isaksson, K., & Laflamme, L. (2007). Verbal abuse in school. Constructions among 14 to 15 year olds. Gender and Education, 19, 587-605.
Epstein, D., & Johnson, R. (1998). Schooling sexualities. Buckingham: Open University Press.
Epstein, D., O’Flynn, S., & Telford, D. (2003). Silences sexualities in schools and universities. Stoke-on-Trent: Trentham.
Francis, B. (1998). Power plays. Stoke-on-Trent: Trentham.
Francis, B. (2000). Boys, girls and achievement: Addressing the classroom issues. London: Routledge/Falmer.
Francis, B. (2010). Re/theorising gender: Female masculinity and male femininity in the classroom? Gender and Education, 22, 477-490.
Francis, B., & Skelton, C. (2005). Reassessing gender and achievement. London: Routledge.
Francis, B. (2009). The role of the boffin as abject other in gendered performances of school achievement. The Sociological Review (Online publication: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1467-954X.2009.01866.x ).
Francis. B., Skelton. C., & Read, B. (2009). The simultaneous production of educational achievement and popularity: How do some pupils accomplish it? British Educational Research Journal, iFirst article. DOI: 10.1080/09540250903341146.
Frosh, S., Phoenix, A., & Pattman, R. (2002). Young Masculinities: Understanding boys in contemporary society. London: Palgrave.
Giddens, A. (1984). The constitution of society: Outline of a theory of structuration. Cambridge: Polity Press.
Giddens, A. (1991). Modernity and self-identity: Self and society in the late modern age. Cambridge: Polity Press.
Gordon, T., Holland, J., & Lahelma, E. (2000). Making spaces: Citizenship and difference in schools. London: Macmillan.
Haauge, M-I. (2009). Bodily practices and discourses of hetero-femininity: Girls’ constitution of subjectivities in their social transition between childhood and adolescence. Gender and Education, 21, 293-307.
Halberstam, M. (1998). Female masculinity. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
Hey, V. (1997). The company she keeps: An ethnography of girls’ friendships. Buckingham: Open University Press.
Hall, S. (1990). Cultural identity and the disapora, In J. Rutherford (Ed.), Identity: Community, culture, difference.London: Lawrence and Wishart.
Hall, S. (1992). The question of cultural identity. In S. Hall, D. Held & T. Mcgrew (Eds.), Modernity and its futures Cambridge: Polity Press.
Hyde, A., Howelett, E., Brady, D., & Drennan, J. (2005). The focus group method: Insights from focus group interviews on sexual health with adolescents. Social Science and Medicine, 61, 2588-2599.
Jackson, C. (2006). ‘Wild’ girls? An exploration of ladette cultures in secondary schools. Gender and Education, 18, 339-360.
Jackson, C. (2007). ‘Ladettes’ and ‘Modern Girls’: ‘troublesome’ young femininities. The Sociological Review, 55, 251-272,
Jackson, C., Paechter, C., & Renold, E. (Eds.) (2010). Girls in education: continuing concerns (pp.3-16). New Agendas: Open University Press.
Kehily, M. J., Mac an Ghaill, M., Epstein, D., & Redman, P. (2002). Private girls and public worlds: producing femininities in the primary school. Discourse, 23, 167-177.
Kelly, M., Pomerantz, S., & Currie, D. (2005). Skater girlhood and emphasized femininity: ‘You can’t land on ollie properly in heels’. Gender and Education, 17, 229-248.
Kenway, J., Willis, S., Blackmore, J., & Rennie, L. (1998). Answering back: girls, boys and feminism in schools. London: Routledge.
Kerfoot, D., & Whitehead, S. (1998, Sep. 11-13). W(h)ither hegemonic masculinity. Paper given at the international conference. Gendering the Millennium. University of Dundee.
Letts, W. J., & Sears, J. T. (1999). Queering elementary education: Advancing the dialogue about sexualities and school. Marlyland, US: Rowman and Littlefield.
Mac an Ghaill, M. (1994). The making of men: masculinities, sexualities and schooling. Buckingham: Open University Press.
Marx, K. (1963)  The Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Bonaparte. New York: International Publishers.
Merten, D. (1997). The meaning of meanness: Popularity, competition, and conflict among Junior High School Girls, Sociology of Education, 70, 175-91.
Paetcher, C. (2006a). Constructing femininity/Constructing femininities. In C. Skelton, B. Francis, & L. Smulyan (Eds.), The Sage handbook of Gender and Education. London: Sage.
Paechter, C. (2006b). Masculine femininities/feminine masculinities: power, identities and gender. Gender and Education, 18, 253-263.
Paechter, C. (2007). Being boys, being girls: Learning masculinities and femininities. Maidenhead: Open University Press.
Paechter, C., & Clark, C. (2007). Learning gender in primary school playgrounds: Findings from the tomboy identities study. Pedagogy, Culture and Society, 15, 317-331.
Paechter, C., & Clark, S. (2010). Schoolgirls and power/knowledge economies: using knowledge to mobilize social power. In C. Jackson, C. Paechter, & E. Renold (Eds.), Girls in education 3-16: Continuing concerns. New Agendas: Open University Press.
Pollard, A. (1985). The social world of the primary school. London: Cassell.
Pollard, A., & Filer, A. (1996). The social world of children’s learning: Case studies of pupils from four to seven. London: Cassell.
Rasmussen, K. L. (2009). Beyond gender identity. Gender and Education, 21, 431-447.
Read, B., Francis, B., & Skelton, C. (2011). Gender, popularity of in/authenticity amongst 12-year-old to 13-year-old school girls. British Journal of Sociology of Education, 32, 169-183.
Reay, D. (2001). ‘Spice girls’, ‘nice girls’, ‘girlies’, and ‘tomboys’: Gender discourses, girls’ cultures and femininities in the primary classroom. Gender and Education, 13, 153-166.
Renold, E. (2001). ‘Square-girls’, femininity and the negotiation of academic success in the primary school. British Education Research Journal, 27, 577-588.
Renold, E. (2002). ‘Presumed Innocence’: (Hetero)sexual, homophobic and heterosexist harassment amongst primary school girls and boys. Childhood, 9, 415-433.
Renold, E. (2006). Gendered classroom experiences. In C. Skelton, B. Francis, & L. Smulyan (Eds.), The Sage handbooks of gender and education. London: Sage.
Renold, E. (2005). Girls, boys and Junior Sexualities: Exploring children’s gender and sexual relations in the primary school. London: Routledge Falmer.
Robinson, K. H. (2005). Reinforcing hegemonic masculinities through sexual harassment: Issues of identity, power and popularity in secondary schools. Gender and Education, 17, 19-37.
Skelton, C., & Francis, B. (2003). Boys and girls in the primary classroom. Buckingham: Open University Press.
Thorne, B. (1993). Gender play: Girls and boys in school. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press.
Weaver-Hightower, M. B. (2003). The ‘boy turn’ on research on gender and education. Review of Educational Research, 73, 471-498.
Woods, P. (1990). The happiest days?. London: Falmer.
Youdell, D. (2006). Impossible bodies, impossible selves. London: Routledge.
- There are currently no refbacks.
If you have already registered in Journal A and plan to submit article(s) to Journal B, please click the CATEGORIES, or JOURNALS A-Z on the right side of the "HOME".
We only use three mailboxes as follows to deal with issues about paper acceptance, payment and submission of electronic versions of our journals to databases:
email@example.com; firstname.lastname@example.org; email@example.com
Copyright © 2010 Canadian Research & Development Centre of Sciences and Cultures
Address: 730, 77e AV, Laval, Quebec, H7V 4A8, Canada
Telephone: 1-514-558 6138