Association Between Perception of Organizational Politics and Workplace Friendship

O.E. Ofoegbu, Paul Ayobami Akanbi, Isaac Obiomoano Akhanolu


This paper examined the association between perception of organizational politics and workplace friendship among university workers with a particular reference to Ajayi Crowther University, Oyo, Oyo State, Nigeria. The objectives of this study were to determine whether general politics, go along to get ahead, pay and promotion policy were predictors of workplace friendship and also to establish the significant relationship between general politics, go along to get ahead, pay and promotion policy and workplace friendship. The study employed survey research. Primary data was used for the study with questionnaires as research instrument. The subjects of this study were two hundred employees in the service of the university. The hypotheses formulated for the study were tested using correlation analysis and regression analysis. The findings of the study revealed that the joint effect of independent variables (general politics, go along to get ahead, pay and promotion policy) jointly and independently predicted workplace friendship. The research also indicated that there was a strong association between the three variables used in measuring perception of organizational politics and workplace friendship. Based on the findings from this study, it is suggested that efforts be made by the organization to enhance or emphasize the importance of teamwork may be an appropriate managerial approach to reducing politics by increasing employees’ understanding and control, particularly in organizations whose strategic objectives call for employees to work in teams. Employees should recognize the consequences and antecedents of perception of politics prevailing in their organization.

Key words: Perception of organizational politics; General politics; Go along to get ahead; Pay and promotion policy; Workplace friendship


Perception of organizational politics; General politics; Go along to get ahead; Pay and promotion policy; Workplace friendship

Full Text:



Allen, R. W., Madison, D. L., Porter, L. W., Renwick, P. A., & Mayes, B. T. (1979). Organizational Politics: Tactics and Characteristics of Its Actors. California Management Review, 22, 77-83.

Ashton, W. A., & Fuerhrer, A. (1993). Effects of Gender and Gender Role Identification of Participant and Type of Social Support Resource on Support Seeking. Sex Roles, 28(7-8), 461-476.

Astley, W. G., & Sachdeva, P. S. (1984). Structural Sources of Intraorganizational Power: A Theoretical Synthesis. Academy of Management Review, 9(1), 104-113.

Bacharach, S. B., & Lawler, E. J. (1981). Power and Politics in Organizations: The Social Psychology of Conflict, Coalitions, and Bargaining. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Bacharach, S. B., & Lawler, E. J. (1998). Political Alignments in Organizations: Contextualization, Mobilization, and Coordination. In R. M. Kramer & M. A. Neale (Eds.), Power and Influence in Organizations (pp. 67-88). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Barley, S., & kunda, G. (2001). Bringing Work back in. Organization Science, 12(1), 76-95.

Berman, E. M., West, J. P., & Richter, M. N. (2002). Workplace Relationships: Friendship Patterns and Consequences (According to Managers). Public Administration Review, 62, 217-30.

Bird, S. R. (2003). Sex Composition, Masculinity Stereotype Dissimilarity and the Quality of Men’s Workplace Social Relations. Gender Work and Organization, 10(5), 579-604.

Buchanan, D. A. (1999). The Logic of Political Action: An Experiment with the Epistemology of the Particular. British Journal of Management, 10(special conference issue), 73-88.

Burns, T. (1961). Micropolitics: Mechanisms of Institutional Change. Administrative Science Quarterly, 55, 257-281.

Butcher, D., & Clarke M. (1999). Organizational Politics: the Missing Discipline of Management? Industrial and Commercial Training, 31(1), 9-12.

Drory, A. (1993). Perceived Political Climate and Job Attitudes. Organization Studies, 14(1), 59-71.

Chanlat, J. F. (1997). Conflict and Politics. In A. Sorge & M. Warner (Eds), Handbook of Organizational Behaviour (pp. 472-480). London: International Thomson.

Dotan, H. (2007). Friendship Ties at Work: Origins, Evolution and Consequences for Managerial.

Drory, A., & Romm, T. (1990). The Definition of Organizational Politics: A Review. Human Relations, 43, 1133-1154.

Eisenhardt, K. M., & Bourgeois, L. T. (1988). Politics of Strategic Decision Making in Velocity Environments: Towards a Mid-Range Theory. Academy of Management Journal, 33, 737-770.

Ferris, G. R., & Kacmar, K. M. (1992). Perceptions of Organizational Politics. Journal of Management, 18, 93-116.

Ferris, G. R., Russ, G. S., & Fandt, P. M.(1989). Politics in Organizations. In Giacalone, R. A. & Rosenfeld P. (Eds.), Impression Management in the Organization (pp. 143-170). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Ferris, G. R., & King, T. R. (1991). Politics in Human Resources Decisions: A Walk on the Dark Side. Organizational Dynamics, 20, 59-71.

Ferris, G. R., Adams, G., Kolodinsky, R. W., Hochwarter, W. A., & Ammeter, A. P. (2002a). Perceptions of Organizational Politics: Theory and Research Directions. Research in Multi-Level Issues, 1, 179-254.

Ferris, G. R., Harrell-Cook, G., & Dulebohn, J. H. (2000). Organizational Politics: The Nature of the Relationship Between Politics Perceptions and Political Behavior. Research in the Sociology of Organizations, 17, 89-130.

Ferris, G. R., Hochwarter, W. A., Douglas, C., Blass, F. R., Kolodinsky, R. W., & Treadway, D. C. (2002b). Social Influence Processes in Organizations and Human Resources Systems. Research in Personnel and Human Resource Management, 21, 65-127.

Ferris, G. R., Russ, G. S., & Fandt, P. M. (1996). Politics in Organizations. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawewnce Elbaum.

Ferris, G. R., & Kacmar, K. M. (1992). Perception of Organizational Politics. Journal of Management, 18, 93-116.

Flaherty, J., & Richman, J. (1989). Gender Differences in the Perception and Utilization of Social Support: Theoretical Perspectives and an Empirical Test. Social Science and Medicine, 28, 1221-1228.

Gandz, J., & Murray, V. V. (1980). The Experience of Workplace Politics. Academy of Management Journal, 23, 237-251.

Hamilton, E. A. (2007). Firm Friendship: Examining Functions and Outcomes of Workplace Friendship Among Law Firm Associates (Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation). Boston College, Boston, MA.

Hardy, C. (1996). Some Dare Call It Power. In Clegg, S., Hardy, C., Nord, W. (Eds.), Handbook of Organizational Studies. Sage: London.

Harris, R. B., Harris, K. J., Harvey, P. (2007). A Test of Competing Models of the Relationships Among Perceptions of Organizational Politics, Perceived Organizational Support, and Individual Outcomes. Journal of Social Psychology, 147(6), 631-655.

Harrison, E. F. (1987). The Management Decision-Making Process. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin.

Hickson, D. J., Hinings, C. R., Lee, C. A., Schneck, R. E., & Pennings J. M. (1971). A Strategic Contingencies Theory of Intra-Organizational Power. Administrative Science Quarterly, 16(2), 216-219.

Kacmar, K. M., & Baron, R. A. (1999). Organizational Politics: The State of the Field, Links to Related Proc-Esses, and an Agenda for Future Research. Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management, 17, 1-39.

Kacmar, K. M., & Carlson, D. S. (1997). Further Validation of the Perceptions of Politics Scale (POPS): A Multiple Sample Investigation. Journal of Management, 23, 627-658.

Kacmar, K. M., & Ferris, G. R. (1991). Perceptions of Organizational Politics Scale (POPS): Development and Construct Validation. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 51, 193-205.

Keen, P. G. W. (1981). Information Systems and Organizational Change. Communications of the ACM, 24(1), 24-33.

Klein, J. I. (1988). The Myth of the Corporate Political Jungle: Politicization as a Political Strategy. Journal of Management Studies, 25, 1-12.

Kram, K. E., & Isabella, L. A. (1985). Mentoring Alternatives: The Role of Peer Relationships in Career Development. Academy Management Journal, 28, 110-132.

Kumar, K., & M. Thibodeaux (1990). Organizational Politics and Planned Organizational Change. Group and Organizational Studies, 15(4), 357-365.

Mangham, I. (1979). The Politics of Organizational Change. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.

Mao, H. Y. (2006). The Relationship Between Organizational Level and Workplace Friendship. International Journal Human Resource Management, 17(10), 1819-1833.

Markiewicz, D., Devine, I., & Kausilas, D. (2000). Friendships of Women and Men at Work: Job Satisfaction and Resource Implications. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 15(1-2).

Mayes, B. T., & Allen, R. W. (1977). Toward a Definition of Organizational Politics. Academy of Management Review, 2, 672-678.

McClelland, D. C. & Burnham, D. H. (1995). Power is the Great Motivator. Harvard Business Review, 73(1), 126-139.

Medison, L. M., Allen, R. W., Renwick, P. A., & Mayes, B. T. (1980). Organizational Politics: An Exploration of Manager’s Perceptions. Human Relations, 33, 79-100.

Messner, M. A. (1992). Power at Play: Sports and the Problem on Masculinity. Boston: Beacon Press.

Miller, B. K., Rutherford, M. A., & Kolodinsky, R. W. (2008). Perceptions of Organizational Politics: A Meta-Analysis of Outcomes. Journal of Business and Psychology, 22, 209-222.

Mintzberg, H. (1983). Power in and Around Organizations. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Mintzberg, H. (1985). The Organization as Political Arena. Journal of Management Studies, 22(2), 133-154.

Nadler, D. A. (1979). The Effects of Feedback on Task Group Behavior: A Review of the Experimental Research. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 23(June), 309-38.

Nielsen, I. K., Jex, S. M., & Adams, G. A. (2000). Development and Validation of Scores on a Two Dimensional Workplace Friendship Scale. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 60(4), 628-643.

Odden, C. M., & Sias, P. M. (1997). Peer Communication Relationships, Psychological Climate, and Gender. Communication Quarterly, 45, 153-166.

Payne, R. B., & Hauty, G. T. (1955). The Effect of Psychological Feedback Upon Work Decrement. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 50, 343-351.

Perrewé, P. L., Ferris G. R, Frink, D. D., & Anthony, W. P. (2000). Political Skill: An Antidote for Workplace Stressors. Academy of Management Executive, 14(3), 115-123.

Pettigrew, A. M., & McNulty T. (1995). Power and Influence in and Around the Boardroom. Human Relations, 48(8), 845-873.

Poon, J. (2003). Situational Antecedents and Outcomes of Organizational Politics Perceptions. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 18, 138-155.

Rawlins, W. K. (1992). Friendship Matters: Communication, Dialectics, and the Life Course. New York: Aldine de Gruyter.

Sapadin, L. A. (1988). Friendship and Gender: Perspectives of Professional Men and Women. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 5, 387-403.

Sias, P. M., & Cahill, D. J. (1998). From Coworkers to Friends: The Development of Peer Friendships in the Workplace. Western Journal of Commerce, 62, 273-299.

Stone, B. (1997). Confronting Company Politics. Basingstoke: Macmillan Business.

Sussman, L., Adams, A. J., Kuzmits, F. E., & Raho, L. E. (2002). Organizational Politics: Tactics, Channels, and Hierarchical Roles. Journal of Business Ethics, 40, 313-329.

Tziner, A. (1999). The Relationship Between Distal and Proximal Factors and the Use of Political Considerations in Performance Appraisal. Journal of Business and Psychology, 14, 217-231.

Valle, M., & Perrewe, P. L. (2000). Do Politics Perceptions Relate to Political Behaviors? Tests of an Implicit Assumption and Expanded Model. Human Relations, 53, 359-386.

Veniegas, R. C., & Peplau, L. A. (1997). Power and the Quality of Same-Sex Friendships. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 21(2), 279-297.

Vigoda-Gadot, E. (2003). Developments in Organizational Politics. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing.

Voyer, J. J. (1994). Coercive Organizational Politics and Organizational Outcomes: An Interpretive Study. Organization Science, 5(1), 72-85.

Walker, K. (1994). Men, Women, and Friendship - What They Say, What They Do. Gender and Society, 8(2), 246-265.

Winstead, B. A. (1986). Sex Differences in Same Sex Friendships. In Derlelga, J. & Winstead, B. A. (Eds.), Friendship and Social Interaction. (pp. 81-99). New York: Springer-Verlag.

Wood, J. T., & Inman, C. C. (1993). In a Different Mode: Masculine Styles of Communicating Closeness. Journal of Applied Communication Research, 21, 279-295.

Wright, P. H. (1988). Interpreting Research on Gender Differences in Friendship: A Case for Moderation and a Plea for Caution. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 5, 367-373.

Wright, P. H., & Scanlon, M. B. (1991). Gender Role Orientations and Friendship: Some Attenuation, But Gender Differences Abound. Sex Roles, 14, 551-566.

Wright, P. H. (1978). Toward a Theory of Friendship Based on the Conception of Self. Human Communication Research, 4, 196-207.

Zaleznik, A. (1997). Real Work. Harvard Business Review, 75(6), 53-63.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c)

Share us to:   


  • How to do online submission to another Journal?
  • If you have already registered in Journal A, then how can you submit another article to Journal B? It takes two steps to make it happen:

1. Register yourself in Journal B as an Author

  • Find the journal you want to submit to in CATEGORIES, click on “VIEW JOURNAL”, “Online Submissions”, “GO TO LOGIN” and “Edit My Profile”. Check “Author” on the “Edit Profile” page, then “Save”.

2. Submission

  • Go to “User Home”, and click on “Author” under the name of Journal B. You may start a New Submission by clicking on “CLICK HERE”.

We only use three mailboxes as follows to deal with issues about paper acceptance, payment and submission of electronic versions of our journals to databases:;;

 Articles published in International Business and Management are licensed under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 (CC-BY).


Address: 1055 Rue Lucien-L'Allier, Unit #772, Montreal, QC H3G 3C4, Canada.
Telephone: 1-514-558 6138 
Website: Http:// Http://

Copyright © 2010 Canadian Research & Development Centre of Sciences and Cultures