Thai Tourism's Antibiotic Against Political Risk

Xing En Earnie CHUA, Yuxi ZHANG


Thailand has been well-known for its prolong political risk. Indeed, the prolong political risk has been mainly due to the constant coup d’états however, the sources of risk had shifted significantly beyond coups. In fact, political turmoil, regime instability and political tension are the key types of risk that defines Thai contemporary political risk. Nonetheless, political risk has caused years of high uncertainty and social instability for Thailand.


Political turmoil; Foreign direct investment; Tourism; Resilience

Full Text:



Airports of Thailand. (2017, May 05). Air transport statistic. Retrieved from

Aljazeera. (2014, February 23). Bangkok bomb kills two in another attack on anti- government protesters. Retrieved 30 April 2017 from blastkillstwoinlatestattackonantigovtprotesters.html

BBC. (2011, June 24). Profile: Thaksin Shinawatra. BBC News. Retrieved from

BBC. (2012, July 13). Profile: Thailand’s reds and yellows. BBC News. Retrieved from

BBC. (2015, August 20). Bangkok bomb: What do we know? BBC News. Retrieved from

BBC. (2016, October 13). Thailand profile-timeline. BBC News. Retrieved from

Bunbongkarn, S. (2004). The military and democracy in Thailand. The military and democracy in Asia and the pacific (pp.47-58). ANU Press. Retrieved from

Bureau of Budget. (2011). Thailand’s budget In brief fiscal year 2011. Bureau of Budget. Retrieved from

Charoensin-o-larn, C. (2013). Thailand in 2012: A year of truth, reconciliation, and continued divide. Southeast Asian Affairs, 287-304.

Connors, M. K. (2011). Thailand’s emergency state: Struggles and transformations. Southeast Asian Affairs, 287-305.

Deloitte Thailand. (2017). Quarterly Economic Report Q4 (p.74).

Department of Foreign Trade. (2016). Guide for investors Thailand special economic zones. Board of Investment.

Department of Tourism. (2016). Visitor statistics in Thailand. Retrieved 15 May 2017 from

Economic impact 2017 Thailand. (2017) (p. 24). WTTC.

Eden, C. (2012, September 4). The rise of medical tourism in Bangkok. Retrieved 5 May 2017 from in-bangkok

Fuller, T. (2008, November 25). Thai Protesters Shut Down Airport. The New York Times. Retrieved from

Haddad, C., Nasr, A., Ghida, E., & Ibrahim, H. A. (2015). How to re-emerge as a tourism destination after a period of political instability (Chapter 1.3). World Economic Forum. Retrieved from

Hewison, K. (2010). Thaksin Shinawatra and the reshaping of Thai politics. Contemporary Politics, 16(2), 119-133.

Hicken, A. (2006). Party fabrication: Constitutional reform and the rise of Thai Rak Thai. Journal of East Asian Studies, 6(3), 381-407.

Lonely Planet. (2017, May 01). Thailand. Retrieved from

MacKinnon, I. (2008, November 26). Rioting protesters close Bangkok airport. The Guardian. Retrieved from alliance-for-democracy

McCargo, D. (2009a). Thai politics as reality TV. The Journal of Asian Studies, 68(1), 7-19.

McCargo, D. (2009b). Thailand: State of Anxiety. Southeast Asian Affairs, 2008, 333-356. Ministry of Finance, Royal Thai Goverment, & The World Bank. (2012, January 18).

Montesano, M. J. (2009). Contextualizing the Pattaya Summit Debacle: Four April Days, Four Thai Pathologies. Contemporary Southeast Asia, 31(2), 217-248.

Nishizaki, Y. (2014). Peasants and the redshirt movement in Thailand: some dissenting voices. Journal of Peasant Studies, 41(1), 1-28.

Ockey, J. (2005). Monarch, monarchy, succession and stability in Thailand. Asia Pacific Viewpoint, 46(2), 115-127.

Ockey, J. (2009). Thailand in 2008: Democracy and street politics. Southeast Asian Affairs, 315-333.

Ongkhluap, S. (2012). Tourism impacts on the Ayutthaya world heritage site: Measuring the perceptions of the host community. Journal of International and Thai Tourism, 8(1), 31-55.

OSAC. (2012). Thailand 2012 Crime and Safety Report: Chiang Mai. Retrieved from

Pattaya Today. (2010, June 03). Thai PM officially signs Document to end Pattaya Curfew. Pattaya Today Newspaper. Retrieved from around-pattaya/thai-pm-officially-signs-document-to-end-pattaya-curfew/

Prasirtsuk, K. (2010). Thailand in 2009: Colored by Turbulence. Asian Survey, 50(1), 203-210.

Profile: Yingluck Shinawatra. (2015, January 23). BBC News. Retrieved from

Promchertchoo, P. (2016, October 13). King Bhumibol Adulyadej (1927 - 2016). Retrieved 27 April 2017 from bhumibol-adulyadej-1927-2016-7907420

Red vs Yellow in Thailand: A republican current in Thailand challenges traditional elite rule. (2010). Economic and Political Weekly, 45(19), 9.

Royal Thai Embassy. (2012, December 12). Thai tourism recovers from political crisis. Retrieved 6 May 2017 from from-political-crisis.html

Sinpeng, A. (2014). Corruption, morality, and the politics of reform in Thailand. Asian Politics & Policy, 6(4), 523–538.

Stepan, A. C. (1988). Rethinking military politics (1st ed.). Princeton, N.J: Princeton University Press.

Tarrant, B. (2009, April 11). Thai protesters force Asia summit cancellation. Reuters. Retrieved from idUSTRE53A06H20090411

TAT. (2015). TAT launches ‘Discover Amazing Thailand’ campaign. Retrieved 15 May 2017 from

Temphairojana, P. (2016, January 6). Thailand expects record tourist arrivals in 2016. Reuters. Retrieved from idUSKBN0UK0IU20160106

Thailand Flooding 2554 Rapid Assessment for Resilient Recovery and Reconstruction Planning. (n.d.). United Nations Development Programme.

The Guardian. (2009, May 19). From the archive: Thai army massacres protesters. The Guardian. Retrieved from archives-thai-army-massacres

The Nation. (2014, March 13). TAT to spend 20 million baht to boost tourism during Songkran Festival. Thailand Visa Forum by Thai Visa | The Nation. Retrieved 6 May 2017, from

The Straits Times. (2016, October 14). Sworn to monarchy, Thailand’s military remain power brokers in royal succession [Text]. Retrieved 27 April 2017 from remain-power-brokers-in-royal-succession

The World Bank. (2016). International tourism, number of arrivals. Retrieved 1 May 2017 from LA-VN-KH

Thepgumpanat, P., & Tanakasempipat, P. (2017, April 6). Thai king signs constitution in step toward poll. Reuters. Retrieved from constitution-idUSKBN1780VB

Tostevin, M. (2017, February 14). Thailand’s new king shows his strength. Reuters. Retrieved from

Tourism Authority of Thailand. (2014, May 2). Thailand’s Songkran 2014 a great success, generating over 4 billion Baht revenue. Retrieved 30 April 2017, from generating-over-4-billion-baht-revenue

Tourism Authority of Thailand. (2017). Songkran Festival 2017. TAT Newsroom. Retrieved from

TripAdvisor. (2017). Best destinations in the world - travelers’ choice awards. Retrieved 1 May 2017 from

UNESCO World Heritage Centre. (2017). Historic City of Ayutthaya. Retrieved 6 May 2017 from

United Overseas Bank. (2009). A look at the fiscal measures (Quarterly Global Outlook 2Q2009). UOB Economic-Treasury Research.

World Bank. (2016). GDP growth (annual %). Retrieved 27 March 2017 from

World Economic Forum. (2009). Travel and tourism competitiveness report. World Economic Forum.

World Economic Forum. (2011). Travel and tourism competitiveness report. World Economic Forum.

World Economic Forum. (2013). Travel and tourism competitiveness report. World Economic Forum.

World Economic Forum. (2015). Travel and tourism competitiveness report. World Economic Forum.

World Economic Forum. (2016). These are the world’s most visited cities in 2015. World Economic Forum. Retrieved from are-the-worlds-most-visited-cities-in-2015/

World Travel & Tourism Council. (2015). Travel & Tourism Economic Impact 2015 Thailand. World Travel & Tourism Council.

Yong, P., Song, M., Artispong, N., Khor, M., & DBS Singapore Research Team. (2016). ASEAN Travel & Hospitality (p.48).



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2019 Yuxi ZHANG

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Share us to:   


  • How to do online submission to another Journal?
  • If you have already registered in Journal A, then how can you submit another article to Journal B? It takes two steps to make it happen:

1. Register yourself in Journal B as an Author

  • Find the journal you want to submit to in CATEGORIES, click on “VIEW JOURNAL”, “Online Submissions”, “GO TO LOGIN” and “Edit My Profile”. Check “Author” on the “Edit Profile” page, then “Save”.

2. Submission

  • Go to “User Home”, and click on “Author” under the name of Journal B. You may start a New Submission by clicking on “CLICK HERE”.

We only use three mailboxes as follows to deal with issues about paper acceptance, payment and submission of electronic versions of our journals to databases:;;

 Articles published in International Business and Management are licensed under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 (CC-BY).


Address: 1055 Rue Lucien-L'Allier, Unit #772, Montreal, QC H3G 3C4, Canada.
Telephone: 1-514-558 6138 
Website: Http:// Http://

Copyright © 2010 Canadian Research & Development Centre of Sciences and Cultures