Overview of Process Modeling Software: Utilizing Alternative Fuels in Cement Plant for Air Pollution Reduction

Emad Benhelal, Alireza Rafiei


The use of process systems engineering tools, such as process modeling software enable the alternative generation of more efficient and sustainable processes. This paper presents the simulation of cement process using alternative fuels to replace coal.  The process modeling is performed using Aspen HYSYS. Simulation results revealed that the substitution of fuel oil, natural gas and palm kernel shell for coal had a significant contribution for emission reduction in cement industry. The emissions for the base case scenario found to be 40,317 kg/h CO2, 806 kg/h NO2 and 146.8 kg/h SO2. Utilizing fuel oil mitigated 22% of CO2 and 92% of NO2 but increased 232% of SO2 emissions. Altering coal to palm kernel shell resulted in 46.16% of CO2, 73% of NO2 and 68% of SO2 emission reduction. In the best case 45.64 % reduction of CO2 emissions was achieved by replacing coal to natural gas and neither NO2 nor SO2 was generated.

Key words: Cement plant; Process simulation; Aspen HYSYS; Alternative fuels; Air pollution reduction


Cement plant; Process simulation; Aspen HYSYS; Alternative fuels; Air pollution reduction

Full Text:



[1] Boateng, A.A. (2008). Rotary Kilns (2th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.

[2] Bogue, R.H. (1955).The chemistry of Portland cement. New York: Reinhold Publishing Corporation.

[3] Conesa, J.A., Galvez, A., Mateos, F., Martin-Gullon, I., & Font, R. (2008). Organic and Inorganic Pollutants from Cement Kiln Stack Feeding Alternative Fuels. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 158(2-3), 585-592.

[4] Engin, T., & Ari, V. (2005). Energy Auditing and Recovery for Dry Type Cement Rotary Kiln Systems, a Case Study. Energy Conversion and Management, 46(4), 551-562.

[5] Gabel, K., & Tillman, A.M. (2005). Simulating Operational Alternatives for Future Cement Production. Cleaner Production, 13(13-14), 1246-1257.

[6] Ghosh, S.N. (2002). Advances in Cement Technology (2nd ed.). India: Tech Books International.

[7] Harimi, M., Megat Ahmad, M.M.H., Sapuan, S.M., & Idris, A. (2005). Numerical Analysis of Emission Component from Incineration of Palm Oil Wastes. Journal of Biomass and Bioenergy, 28(3), 339-345.

[8] Holderbank Inc. (1993). Heat Balance of Kiln and Coolers and Related Topics, Cement Seminar: Comminution Engineering, Process Technology.

[9] Wikipedia. (2012). Fuel Oil. Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fuel_oil

[10] Wikipedia. (2012). Biofuel. Retrieved from http://www.wikipedia.com/biofuel

[11] Kaantee, U., Zevenhove, R., Backman, R., & Hupa, M. (2004). Cement Manufacturing Using Alternative Fuels and the Advantages of Process Modeling. Fuel Processing Technology, 85(4), 293-301.

[12] Kabir, G., Abubakar, A.I., & El-Nafaty, U.A. (2010). Energy Audit and Conservation Opportunities for Pyroprocessing Unit of a Typical Dry Process Cement Plant. Energy, 35(3), 1237-1243.

[13] Khurana, S., Banerjee, R., & Gaitonde, U. (2002). Energy Balance and Cogeneration for a Cement Plant. Applied Thermal Engineering, 22(5), 485-494.

[14] Mintus, F., Hamel, S., & Krumm, W. (2006). Wet Process Rotary Cement Kilns: Modeling and Simulation. Clean Tech. Environ. Policy, 8(2), 112-122.

[15] Mujumdar, K.S., & Ranade, V.V. (2006). Simulation of Rotary Cement Kilns Using a One-Dimensional Model. Chemical Engineering Research and Design, 84(A3), 165-177.

[16] Mujumdar, K.S., Ganesh, K.V., Kulkarni, S.B., & Ranade, V. V. (2007). Rotary Cement Kiln Simulator (RoCKS): Integrated Modeling of Pre-Heater, Calciner, Kiln and Clinker Cooler. Chemical Engineering Science, 62(9), 2590-2607.

[17] Nazmul, H. (2005). Techno-Economic Study of CO2 Capture Process for Cement Plants (Master dissertation). University of Waterloo, Ontario, Canada.

[18] Perry, R.H., & Green, D.W. (1999). Perry’s Chemical Engineer’s Handbook. New York: McGraw-Hill.

[19] Pipilikaki, P., Katsioti, M., Papageorgiou, D., Fragoulis, D., & Chaniotakis, E. (2005). Use of Tire Derived Fuel in Clinker Burning. Cement & Concrete Composites, 27(7-8), 843-847.

[20] Prisciandaro, M., Mazziotti, G., & Veglio, F. (2003). Effect of Burning Supplementary Waste Fuels on the Pollutant Emissions by Cement Plants: a Statistical Analysis of Process Data, Resources. Conservation and Recycling, 39(2), 161-184.

[21] Research institute of petroleum industry (Ripi). (2010). Retrieved from http://www.ripi.ir/index.php?option=com_productbook&func=viewcategory&Itemid=250&catid=1

[22] Rodriguez, N., Alonso, M,. Abanades, J.C., Grasa, G., & Murillo, R. (2009). Analysis of a Process the Capture the CO2 Resulting from the Precalcination of the Limestone Feed to Cement Plant. Energy Procedia, 1(1), 141-148.

[23] Scripps CO2 Program UCSD / Scripps Institution of Oceanography. (2011). Retrieved from http://co2now.org

[24] Taniguchi, M., Kobayashi, H., Kiyama, K., & Shimogori, Y. (2009). Comparison of Flame Propagation Properties of Petroleum Coke and Coals of Different Rank. Fuel, 88(8), 1478-1484.

[25] Taylor, H.F.W. (1990). Cement Chemistry. New York: Thomas Telford Publishing.

[26] U.S.A, Environmental Protection Agency. (2010). Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks:1990-2008. Retrieved from http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/ghgemissions/usinventoryreport/archive.html

[27] Zabaniotou, A., & Theofilou, C. (2008). Green Energy at Cement Kiln in Cyprus-Use of Sewage Sludge as a Conventional Fuel Substitute. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 12(2), 531-541.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3968/j.est.1923847920120401.356


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Share us to:   


If you have already registered in Journal A and plan to submit article(s) to Journal B, please click the CATEGORIES, or JOURNALS A-Z on the right side of the "HOME".

We only use three mailboxes as follows to deal with issues about paper acceptance, payment and submission of electronic versions of our journals to databases: caooc@hotmail.com; est@cscanada.net; est@cscanada.org

 Articles published in Energy Science and Technology are licensed under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 (CC-BY).


Address: 9375 Rue de Roissy Brossard, Québec, J4X 3A1, Canada 
Telephone: 1-514-558 6138 
Website: Http://www.cscanada.net Http://www.cscanada.org 
E-mailest@cscanada.net; est@cscanada.org

Copyright © 2010 Canadian Research & Development Centre of Sciences and Cultures