Intercultural Adaptation of Chinese Guest Teachers in the U.S.

Jinan Jia


As one of the Chinese Guest Teachers Program during 2010-2011, I got a real feel for the serious problem―intercultural adaptation, which most Chinese guest teachers are facing. If we do not pay enough attention to the problem and take action in time, these problems may cause some other unfavorable results such as an ineffective in Chinese language teaching or a massive pressure of the Chinese guest teachers themselves.
This thesis researches the relationship between social-cultural adaptation and psychological adaptation with two main factors, Chinese guest teachers’ intercultural training and length of stay in U.S., then verifies intercultural adaptation model theory; the thesis also shows the social-cultural adaptation and psychological adjustment condition of Chinese guest teachers is positively correlated with the length of stay in U.S.. Moreover, the author arrives at the conclusions on the basis of research results, as well as indications for Hanban to improve intercultural adaptation training for Chinese guest teachers.


U.S.A;Chinese Guest Teacher Program;Intercultural Adaptation;

Full Text:



An, R. (2008). Learning in two languages and cultures—the experience of mainland Chinese families in Britain. Hong Kong: China Review Academic Publishers Limited.

Antonucci, T. C. (1985). Social support: Theoretical advances, recent findings and pressing issues. In I. G. Sarason & B. R. Sarason (Eds.), Social support: Theory, research and application (pp.25-26). Boston: Nijhoff.

Arends-Toth, J., &Van de Vijver, F. J. R. (2004). Domains and dimensions in acculturation: Implicit theories of Turkish-Dutch. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 28, 19-35.

Babiker, I. E., Cox, J. L., & Miller, P. (1980). The measurement of cultural distance and its relationship to medical consultations, symptomatology, and examination performance of overseas students at Edinburgh University. Social Psychiatry, 15(2), 109-116.

Barratt, M. F., & Huba, M. E. (1994). Factors related to international undergraduate student adjustment in an American community. College Student Journal, 28, 422-435.

Barratt, M. F., & Huba, M. E. (1994). Factors related to international undergraduate student adjustment in an American community. College Student Journal, 28, 422-435.

Basic qualities for being an international volunteer Chinese teacher. China Adult Education, (8), 80-81. (In Chinese).

Beiser, M. (1988). Influences of time, ethnicity, and attachment on depression in Southeast Asian refugees. American Journal of Psychiatry, (1), 46-51.

Berry, J. W. (1980). Acculturation as varieties of adaptation. In A. Padilla (Ed.), Acculturation: Theory, models and findings (p.25). Boulder: Westview.

Berry, J. W. (1997). Immigration, acculturation and adaptation. Applied psychology: An international review (p.46).

Berry, J. W. (2003). Conceptual approaches to acculturation In K. Chun, P. B. Organista, G. Marin (Eds.), Acculturation: Advances in theory, measurement, and applied research (pp.17-37). Washington DC: American Psychological Association.

Black, J., & Mendenhall, M. (1990). Cross-cultural training effectiveness: A review and a theory framework for future research. Academy of Management Review, 15(1), 113-136.

Black, J., Mendenhall, M., & Oddou, G. (1991). Toward a comprehensive model of international adjustment: An integration of multiple theoretical perspectives. Academy of Management Review (Special International Management Theory issue), April, 291-317.

Brislin, R. W., & Yoshida, T. (1994). Intercultural communication training: An introduction. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Chen, H., Che, H. S., & Zhu, M. (2003). A Review of factors impacting cross-culture adaption. Advances in Psychological Science, 11(6), 704-780. (In Chinese).

Cohen, S., Mermelstein, R., Karmarck, T., & Hoberman, H. M. (1985). Measuring the functional components of social support. In I. G. Sarason & B. R. Sarason (Eds.),Social support: Theory, research and application (p.75). Boston: Nijhoff.

Fan, Z., & Zhang, L. (2003). Elementary discussion of cross-cultural training based on dynamic balance mode. Foreign Economics & Management, 25(5), 25-30. (In Chinese).

Flannery, W. P., Reise, S. P., & Yu, J. (2001). An Empirical comparison of acculturation models. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 27, 1035-1045.

Furnham, A., & Bochner, S. (1982). Social difficulty in a foreign culture: An empirical analysis of culture shock. In S. Bochner (Ed.), Cultures in contact: Studies in cross-cultural interactions (pp.161-198). Oxford: Pergamon.

Gay, L. R. (1992). Educational research: Competencies for analysis and application (4th ed.). New York: Macmillan Publishing Company.

Gudykunst, W. B., Hammer, M. R., & Wiseman, R. L. (1997). An analysis of an integrated approach to cross-cultural training. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 99-110.

Guo-Ming, C., &William, J. S. (2007). Foundations of intercultural communication. Shanghai Foreign Language Education Press.

Hair, J. F., Anderson, R. E., Tatham, R. L., & Black, W. C. (1998). Multivariate data analysis (5th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson Education Inc.

Hanban Annual Report. (2006). Retrieved from

Kagan, H., & Cohen, J. (1992). Cultural adjustment of international students. Psychological Science, 2, 133-137.

Lee, S., Sobal, J., & Frongillo, E. A. (2003). Comparison of models of acculturation: The case of Korean Americans. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 34(3), 282-296.

Levy, J. (1995). Intercultural training design. Intercultural sourcebook: Cross-cultural training methods. Yarmouth: Intercultural Press Inc.

Lin, N., Simeone, R. S., Ensel, W. M., & Kou, W. (1979). Social support, stressful life events, and illness: A model and an empirical test. Journal of Health and Social Behaviour, 20, 109.

Lysgaad, S. (1995). Adjustment in foreign society: Norwegian Fulbright grantees visiting the United States. International Social Science Bulletin, 7.

Lysgaad, S. (1995). Adjustment in foreign society: Norwegian Fulbright grantees visiting the United States. International Social Science Bulletin, 7.

Mendenhall, M., & Oddou, G. (1985). The dimensions of expatriate acculturation. Academy of Management Review, 10(1), 39-47.

Mezirow, J. (1991). Transformative dimensions of adult learning. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Nunnally, J. C. (1978). Psychometric theory (2nd ed.) (p.245). New York: McGraw-Hill.

Procidano, M. E., & Heller, K. (1983). Measures of perceived social support from friends and from family: Three validation studies. American Journal of Community Psychology, 11, p.2.

Pusch, M. D. (1993, November). The chameleon capability. Paper presented at the council for International Education Exchange Annual Conference, Washington

Qi, H., & Li, X. Y. (2009). Cross-cultural adaption of Korean overseas student in Beijing. Youth Studies, (2), 84-96. (In Chinese).

Redfield, R., Linton, R., & Herskovits, M. (1936). Memorandum on the study of acculturation. American Anthropologist, 38, 149-152.

Redmond, M. V., & Bunyi, J. M. (1993). The relationship of intercultural communication competence with stress and the handling of stress as reported by international students. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 151-159.

Sam, D. L. (1998). Predicting life satisfaction among adolescents from immigrant families in Norway. Ethnicity and Health, 3(1), 5-18.

Shumaker, S. A., & Brownell, A. (1984). Toward a theory of social support: closing conceptual gaps. Journal of Social, 40, p.13.

Wang, J., & Huang, W. H. (2008). Cross-cultural adaption of minority bilingual teachers. Journal of Research on Education for Ethnic Minorities, (5), 5-10. (In Chinese).

Ward, C. (2001). The A, B, Cs of acculturation. In D. Matsumoto (Ed.), The handbook of culture & psychology (pp.411-445). New York: Oxford University Press.

Ward, C., & Chang, W. C. (1997). Cultural fit: A new perspective on personality and sojourner adjustment. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 21(6), pp.525-533.

Ward, C., & Kennedy, A. (1992). Locus of control, mood disturbance and social difficulty during cross-cultural transition. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 16, 175-194.

Ward, C., & Kennedy, A. (1999). The measurement of socio-cultural adaptation. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 23, 659-677.

Zung, W. W. K. (1965). A self-rating depression scale. Arch Gen Psychiatry, 12, 63-70.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2014 Jinan Jia

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Share us to:   


  • How to do online submission to another Journal?
  • If you have already registered in Journal A, then how can you submit another article to Journal B? It takes two steps to make it happen:

1. Register yourself in Journal B as an Author

  • Find the journal you want to submit to in CATEGORIES, click on “VIEW JOURNAL”, “Online Submissions”, “GO TO LOGIN” and “Edit My Profile”. Check “Author” on the “Edit Profile” page, then “Save”.

2. Submission

Online Submission:

  • Go to “User Home”, and click on “Author” under the name of Journal B. You may start a New Submission by clicking on “CLICK HERE”.
  • We only use four mailboxes as follows to deal with issues about paper acceptance, payment and submission of electronic versions of our journals to databases:;;;

 Articles published in Cross-Cultural Communication are licensed under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 (CC-BY).


Address: 1055 Rue Lucien-L'Allier, Unit #772, Montreal, QC H3G 3C4, Canada.
Telephone: 1-514-558 6138 
Website: Http://; Http://;

Copyright © Canadian Academy of Oriental and Occidental Culture