Durkheim and Saussure: Structuralism Thoughts Compared

Yuan-chao LIU

Abstract


Structuralism is the most popular rationalism thought in the current academic field. It originates from the structuralism in linguistics and gradually influences anthropology, literature, philosophy, history, sociology and such humanistic disciplines and it has laid foundation for the development of post-modernism in the contemporary society. The author noticed that there was structuralism in academic field before linguistic structuralism came up and that was social structural analysis in sociology. The author discussed in detail the structuralism thought of Durkheim, who was the founder of sociology. The author compares his thoughts with those of Saussure and their life experiences and makes the conclusion that Saussure’s structuralism thought originated from Durkheim’s social structural analysis and was further systemized and developed. Researchers after Saussure further developed Saussure’s idea and thus made structuralism a precise and complete rationalism academic thought.
Key words: Durkheim, Saussure, structuralism, social structure, structural analysis, post-structural analysis, schools of structuralism
Résumé: Le structuralisme est un courant de pensée rationnel le plus à la mode du monde scientifique. Provenant du structuralisme linguistique, il s’étend petit à petit dans le domaine de sciences humaine et sociale, telles que l’anthropologie, la littérature, la philosophie, l’histoire et la sociologie, et jette la base pour le développement du post-modernisme. L’auteur a noté que, avant l’élaboration du structuralisme linguistique, il existait déjà la pensée structuraliste – l’analyse de la structure sociale de la sociologie. Il entreprend une analyse minutieuse sur la pensée structuraliste du fondateur de la sociologie Durkheim et établit, du point de vue biographique, une comparaison entre lui et Saussure, créateur du structuralisme linguistique. L’auteur arrive à conclure que le structuralisme de Saussure est né de l’analyse de structure sociale de Durkheim, mais plus systématique et plus strict que celle-ci, et que les chercheurs structuralistes après Saussure développent davantage sa pensée pour faire du structuralisme un courant de pensée rationnel complet et rigoureux.
Mots-clés: Durkheim, Saussure, structuralisme, structure sociale, analyse structurelle, post-structuralisme, école de structuralisme
摘 要:結構主義是目前學術界昀流行的理性主義思潮。它起源於語言學的結構主義,逐漸蔓延到人類學、文學、哲學、歷史學、社會學等人文-社會科學領域,並為當代的後現代主義的形成與發展提供了基礎。作者在研究結構主義時曾注意到,在語言學結構主義提出之前,學術界也有結構主義的思想,這就是社會學的社會結構分析。作者詳細地分析了社會學的創始人塗爾幹的結構主義思想,並從其生平、經歷與語言學結構主義的創建人索緒爾的學說進行比較後認為,索緒爾的結構主義思想起源于塗爾幹的社會結構分析,並進一步系統化和嚴密化,索緒爾其後的結構主義研究者更加精密地發展了索緒爾的思想,使得結構主義成為一種嚴密而完整的理性主義學術思潮。
關鍵詞:塗爾幹;索緒爾;結構主義;社會結構;結構分析;後結構主義;結構主義流派

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3968%2Fj.ccc.1923670020070303.001

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