Social Thinking and Risk Between Road Users: The Case of the Pedestrian in Two Cultural Contexts

Gaymard Sandrine, Tiplica Teodor, Koh Puay Ping, Wong Yiik Diew

Abstract


Interactions between motorized and non-motorized road users constitute situations of risk for the latter. Improving the safety of pedestrians, who are the most vulnerable users, is a challenge for public health in society. The aims of this study concern the social representation of the pedestrian and the impact of the cultural variable in the construction of this knowledge; a field in which there exists little research. In this perspective, the discourse of two groups of students, one from a French city (N=85) and one from Singapore (N=124) are compared. The use of free associations and specific analyses makes it possible to isolate the words or expressions most frequently associated with pedestrians and those that discriminate the two populations. This study reveals that the pedestrian is associated with risk in both cultural environments. Nevertheless the French express more fear and apprehension and the Singaporeans’ representation is both more descriptive and personified. These results are discussed in relation to the cultural contexts.

Keywords


Social representations; Pedestrian; Culture; Discourse analysis; Statistical tests; Discriminant correspondence analysis

Full Text:

PDF

References


Abdi, H. (2007). Discriminant correspondence analysis. In N. J. Salkind (Ed.), Encyclopedia of measurement and statistics (pp.270-275). Thousand Oaks (CA): Sage.

Arregui-Dalmases, C., Lopez-Valdes, F. J., & Segui-Gomez, M. (2010). Pedestrian injuries in eight European countries: An analysis of hospital discharge data. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 42, 1164-1171.

Aziz, H. M. A., Ukkusuri, S. V., & Hasan, S. (2013). Exploring the determinants of pedestrian–vehicle crash severity in New York city. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 50, 1298-1309.

Breakwell, G. M. (2001). Mental models and social representations of hazards: The significance of identity processes. Journal of Risk Research, 4, 341-351.

Breakwell, G. M. (2007). The psychology of risk. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Brison, R. J., Wicklund, K., & Mueller, B. A. (1988). Fatal pedestrian injuries to young children: A different pattern of injury. American Journal of Public Health, 78(7), 793-795. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.78.7.793

Bromberg, S., Oron-Gilad, T., Ronen, A., Borowsky, A., & Parmet, Y. (2012). The perception of pedestrians from the perspective of elderly experienced and experienced drivers. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 44, 48-55.

Cho, G., Rodríguez, D. A., & Khattak, A. J. (2009). The role of the built environment in explaining relationships between perceived and actual pedestrian and bicyclist safety. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 41, 692-702.

CNN. (2007). Retrieved from http://edition.cnn.com/2007/WORLD/europe/05/02/walking.speeds/

Damsere-Derry, J., Ebel, B. E., Mock, C. N., Afukaar, F., & Donkor, P. (2010). Pedestrians’ injury patterns in Ghana. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 42, 1080-1088.

Douglas, M. (1994). Risk and blame: Essays in cultural theory. London: Routledge.

Faure, A. (2011). Marche et commerce de proximité. Colloque “développer la marche en ville: Mobilité, santé, sécurité du piéton”.

Forum International des Transports. (2011). Piétons: Sécurité, espaces urbains et santé. Rapport de Recherche. OCDE/FIT

Gaymard, S. (2011). Radars non signalés: les raisons d’un rejet [Unindicated speed cameras: The reasons for rejection]. Cerveau & Psycho, 47, 14-15.

Gaymard, S. (2012). Pedestrian representation through the analysis of little stories. Psychology of Language and Communication, 16(3), 185-200. doi: 10.2478/v10057-012-0013-9

Gaymard, S. (2014). The theory of conditionality: An illustration of the place of norms in the field of social thinking. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour, 44(2), 229-247.

Gaymard, S., & Bordarie, J. (2015). The perception of the ideal neighborhood: A preamble to implementation of a “street use code”. Social Indicators Research, 120(3), 801-816.

Gaymard, S., Boucher, V., Greffier, F., & Fournela, F. (2012). La perception du piéton par le conducteur: Aspects représentationnels et visuels. In S. Gaymard & A. Egido (Eds.), Sécurité et facteurs humains dans les moyens de transports: Une approche multidisciplinaire [Safety and human factors in means of transportation: A multidisciplinary approach] (pp.237-252). Paris: L’Harmattan.

Gaymard, S., Boucher, V., Nzobounsana, V., Greffier, F., & Fournela, F. (2013). La perception des piétons par les conducteurs: Corrélations entre les données d’un œil électronique et le verbatim des conducteurs/ Drivers’ perception of pedestrians: Correlations between the data of an electronic eye and drivers’ verbatim. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science/Revue canadienne des sciences du comportement, 45(2), 124-137.

Gaymard, S., & Egido, A. (Eds.). (2014). Mobilités et transports durables: des enjeux sécuritaires et de santé/Mobilities and sustainable transport: Security and health stakes. Paris: L’Harmattan.

Gaymard, S., & Tiplica, T. (2015). Conditionality and risk for the pedestrian: modelling with the Bayesian Networks. International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion, 22(4), 340-351.

Gitelman, V., Balasha, D., Carmel, R., Hendel, L., & Pesahov, F. (2012). Characterization of pedestrian accidents and an examination of infrastructure measures to improve pedestrian safety in Israel. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 44, 63-73.

Graw, M., & König, H. G. (2002). Fatal pedestrian-bicycle collisions. Forensic Science International, 126, 241-247.

Hall, E. T. (1966). The hidden dimension. New York: Doubleday and Compagny, Inc.

Hatfield, J., & Murphy, S. (2007). The effects of mobile phone use on pedestrian crossing behaviour at signalised and unsignalised intersections. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 39(1), 197-205.

Hawkes, G., Houghton, J., & Rowe, G. (2009). Risk and worry in everyday life: Comparing diaries and interviews as tools in risk perception research. Health, Risk and Society, 11(3), 209-230.

Hawkes, G., & Rowe, G. (2008). A characterisation of the methodology of qualitative research on the nature of perceived risk: Trends and omissions. Journal of Risk Research, 11(5), 617-643.

Health Development Agency. (2003). Prevention and reduction of accidental injury in children and older people. Retrieved 2014, April from http://www.nice.org.uk/niceMedia/documents/prev_accidental_injury.pdf

Hofstede, G. (1987). Relativité culturelle des pratiques et theories de l’organisation [Cultural relativity of organization practices and theories]. Revue Française de Gestion, 64, 10-20.

Hofstede, G. (2001). Culture’s consequences: Comparing values, behaviours, institutions, and organizations across nations (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks: Sage publication, Inc.

Joffe, H. (1999). Risk and “the other”. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Joffe, H. (2003). Risk: From perception to social representation. British Journal of Psychology, 42, 55-73. doi: 10.1348/014466603763276126

Joffe, H. (2005). De la perception à la représentation du risque: le rôle des médias. Hermès, 41, 121-129.

Kaparias, I., Bell, M. G. H., Miri, A., Chan, C., & Mount, B. (2012). Analysing the perceptions of pedestrians and drivers to shared space. Transportation Research Part F, 15, 297-310.

King, M. J., Soole, D., & Ghafourian, A. (2009). Illegal pedestrian crossing at signalised intersections: Incidence and relative risk. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 41, 485-490.

Kitazawa, K., & Fujiyama, T. (2010). Pedestrian vision and collision avoidance behavior: Investigation of the information process space of pedestrians using an eye tracker. In W. W. F. Klingsch, C. Rogsch, A. Schadschneider & M. Schreckenberg (Eds.), Pedestrian and evacuation dynamics 2008 (pp.95-108). London, UK: Springer.

Koh, P. P., & Wong, Y. D. (2013). Influence of infrastructural compatibility factors on walking and cycling route choices. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 36, 202-213.

Loretta, A., Kelly, M. S., & Hempstead, K. (2004). Older pedestrian fatalities in New Jersey, 1999-2000. Topics in Health Statistics, 1-16.

Lund, I. O., & Rundmo, T. (2009). Cross-cultural comparisons of traffic safety, risk perception, attitudes and behaviour. Safety Science, 47, 547-53

Moscovici, S. (1961/76). La psychanalyse, son image et son public (2nd ed.) [Psychoanalysis, its image and its public]. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France.

Nasar, J. L., Hecht, P., & Wener, R. (2008). Mobile telephones, distracted attention, and pedestrian safety. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 40(1), 69-75.

Nasar, J. L., & Troyer, D. (2013). Pedestrian injuries due to mobile phone use in public places. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 57, 91-95.

Nordfjærn, T., Jørgensen, S., & Rundmo, T. (2011). A cross-cultural comparison of road traffic risk perceptions, attitudes towards traffic safety and driver behaviour. Journal of Risk Research, 14(6), 657-684.

Otte, D., Jänsch, M., & Haasper, C. (2012). Injury protection and accident causation parameters for vulnerable road users based on German In-Depth Accident Study GIDAS. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 44, 149-153.

Roberts, I., Ashton, T., Dunn, R., & Lee-Joe, T. (1994). Preventing child pedestrian injury: Pedestrian education or traffic calming? Australian Journal of Public Health, 18(2), 209-212.

Sarrica, M., & Wachelke, J. (2010). Peace and war as social representations: A structural exploration with Italian adolescents. Universitas Psychologica, 9(2), 315-330.

Schefer, C., & Cho, H. (2003). A social network contagion theory of risk perception. Risk Analysis: An International Journal, 23, 261-267.

Sissons, J. M., Senior, V., & Smith, G. P. (2001). A diary study of the risk perception of road users. Health, Risk and Society, 3(3), 261-279.

Sivak, M., Soler, J., Tränkle, U., & Spagnhol, J. M. (1989). Cross-cultural differences in driver risk-perception. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 21, 355-362.

Şimşekoğlu, Ö., Nordfjærn, T., & Rundmo, T. (2012). Traffic risk perception, road safety attitudes, and behaviours among road users: A comparison of Turkey and Norway. Journal of Risk Research, 15(7), 787-800.

Sjöberg, L. (2000). Factors in risk perception. Risk Analysis, 20(1), 1-11.

Slovic, P. (2000). The perception of risk. London: Earthscan.

Smith, N., & Joffe, H. (2012). How the public engages with global warming: A social representations approach. Public Understanding of Science, 22(1), 16-32.

Takanishi, D. M., Yu, M., & Morita, S. Y. (2008). Increased fatalities and cost of traumatic injuries in elderly pedestrians in Hawaii: A Challenge for prevention and outreach. Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health, 20(4), 327-339.

Triandis, H. C. (1989). The self and social behaviour in differing cultural contexts. Psychological Review, 96(3), 506-520.

Wachelke, J. (2008). Relationship between response evocation rank in social representations associative tasks and personal symbolic value. International Review of Social Psychology, 21(3), 113-126.

Wagner, W., Valencia, J., & Elejabarrieta, F. (1996). Relevance, discourse and the “hot” stable nucleus of social representations. A structural analysis of word associations. British Journal of Social psychology, 35(3), 331-352.

Weiner, I. B. (Ed.). (2003). Handbook of psychology, Vol.1: History of psychology. Hoboken New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

World Health Organization (WHO). (2013). Pedestrian safety. A road safety manual for decision-makers and practitioners. Retrieved 2013, November 2 from http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/79753/1/9789241505352_eng.pdf

Wong, M. W. (2007, May 2). Study rates Singapore fastest moving city in the world. Channel NewsAsia.

Yuen, B., & Chin, H. C. (1998). Pedestrian streets in Singapore. Transportation, 25, 225-242.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3968/8916

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2016 Sandrine Gaymard, Tiplica Teodor, Koh Puay Ping, Wong Yiik Diew

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Share us to:   


Reminder

  • How to do online submission to another Journal?
  • If you have already registered in Journal A, then how can you submit another article to Journal B? It takes two steps to make it happen:

1. Register yourself in Journal B as an Author

  • Find the journal you want to submit to in CATEGORIES, click on “VIEW JOURNAL”, “Online Submissions”, “GO TO LOGIN” and “Edit My Profile”. Check “Author” on the “Edit Profile” page, then “Save”.

2. Submission

  • Go to “User Home”, and click on “Author” under the name of Journal B. You may start a New Submission by clicking on “CLICK HERE”.
  • We only use four mailboxes as follows to deal with issues about paper acceptance, payment and submission of electronic versions of our journals to databases: caooc@hotmail.com; office@cscanada.net; ccc@cscanada.net; ccc@cscanada.org

 Articles published in Cross-Cultural Communication are licensed under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 (CC-BY).

 CROSS-CULTURAL COMMUNICATION Editorial Office

Address: 1020 Bouvier Street, Suite 400, Quebec City, Quebec, G2K 0K9, Canada. 
Telephone: 1-514-558 6138 
Website: Http://www.cscanada.net; Http://www.cscanada.org 
E-mail:caooc@hotmail.com; office@cscanada.net

Copyright © Canadian Academy of Oriental and Occidental Culture