The KiddyCAT: A Test-Retest Reliability Investigation

Martine Vanryckeghem, T. De Niels, S. Vanrobaeys

Abstract


Research with the Communication Attitude Test for Preschool and Kindergarten Children who Stutter (KiddyCAT) in the United States, Italy and Poland has shown that, as a group, preschool and kindergarten children who stutter report, as of the age of three, already significantly more in the way of a negative attitude toward speech compared to their nonstuttering peers. In addition to its discriminative usefulness, the test’s validity has been established. What still needed to be determined was the KiddyCAT’s test-retest reliability, which was the aim of this investigation. In order to do so, a Dutch form of the KiddyCAT was administered to a sample of 34 stuttering and 42 nonstuttering children between the age of three and six on two separate occasions. After the initial testing, the children were retested a week to 12 days later. For both groups of participants, the scores of the first and second test administration correlated significantly, and the average scores did not differ from each other to a statistically significant extent. Thus, the repeated administration of the test revealed that the obtained first and second test scores were highly dependent and predictable from each other, and stable over time. As a side issue, it was, once again, confirmed that the scores of the children who do and do not stutter differed to a statistically significant extent.


Keywords


KiddyCAT; Speech-associated attitude; Communication attitude; Preschoolers; Kindergartners

Full Text:

PDF

References


Ammons, R., & Johnson, W. (1944). Studies in the psychology of stuttering: XVIII. The construction and application of a test of attitude toward stuttering. Journal of Speech Disorders, 9, 39-49.

Andrews, G., & Cutler, J. (1974). Stuttering therapy: The relation between changes in symptom level and attitudes. Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders, 39, 312-319.

Barr, H. (1940). A quantitative study of the specific phenomena observed in stuttering. Journal of Speech Disorders, 5, 277-280.

Bernardini, S., Cocco, L., Zmarich, C., Di Pietro, M., Vanryckeghem, M., & Brutten, G. (2012, July). The KiddyCAT©: normative and comparative study of Italian CWS and CWNS. Paper presented at the 7th World Congress on Fluency Disorders, Tours, France.

Bernardini, S., Vanryckeghem, M., Brutten, G. Cocco, L., & Zmarich, C. (2009). Communication attitude of Italian children who do and do not stutter. Journal of Communication Disorders, 42, 155-161.

Boey, R., Van de Heyning, P., Wuyts, F., Heylen, L., Stoop, R., & De Bodt, M. (2009). Awareness and reactions of young stuttering children aged 2-7 years old towards their speech disfluency. Journal of Communication Disorders, 42, 334-346.

Boutsen, F., & Brutten, G. (1990). Stutterers and non-stutterers: A normative investigation of children’s speech-associated attitudes. Unpublished manuscript, Southern Illinois University.

Brown, S. F., & Hull, H. C. (1942). A study of some social attitudes of a group of stutterers. Journal of Speech Disorders, 7, 323-324.

Brutten, G. (1984). Communication Attitude Test. Unpublished manuscript.

Brutten, G., & Dunham, S. (1989). The communication attitude test. A normative study of grade school children. Journal of Fluency Disorders, 14, 371-377.

Brutten, G., & Shoemaker, D. (1967). The modification of stuttering. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Brutten, G., & Shoemaker, D. (1971). A two factor learning theory of stuttering. In L. E. Travis (Ed.), Handbook of speech pathology and audiology (pp.1035-1072). New York Appleton-Century-Crofts.

Brutten, G., & Vanryckeghem, M. (2003a). Behavior Assessment Battery: A Multi dimensional and evidence-based approach to diagnostic and therapeutic decision making for children who stutter. Belgium: Stichting Integratie Gehandicapten & Acco Publishers.

Brutten, G., & Vanryckeghem, M. (2003b). Behavior assessment battery: A multi-dimensional and evidence-based approach to diagnostic and therapeutic decision making for adults who stutter. Belgium: Stichting Integratie Gehandicapten & Acco Publishers.

Brutten, G., & Vanryckeghem, M. (2007). Behavior Assessment Battery for school-age children who stutter. San Diego, CA: Plural Publishing, Inc.

Clark, C., Conture, E., Frankel, C., & Walden, T. (2012). Communicative and psychological dimensions of the KiddyCAT. Journal of Communication Disorders, 45,223-234.

Cools, A. T. M., & Hermanns, J. M. A. (1986). Denver Ontwikkeling Screeningtest. Swets & Zeitlinger.

Cooper, E. (1977). Controversies about stuttering therapy. Journal of Fluency Disorders, 2, 75-86.

Cooper, E. (1999). Is stuttering a speech disorder? ASHA, 10, 11.

Craig, A. (1990). An investigation into the relationship between anxiety and stuttering. Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders, 55, 290-294.

Craig, A., & Tran, Y. (2014). Trait and social anxiety in adults with chronic stuttering: Conclusions following meta-analysis. Journal of Fluency Disorders, 40, 35-43.

Culatta, R., Bader, J., McCaslin, A., & Thomason, N. (1985). Primary school stutterers: Have attitudes changed? Journal of Fluency Disorders, 10, 87-91.

De Nil, L., & Brutten, G. (1990). Speech-associated attitudes. Stuttering, voice disordered, articulation disordered and normal speaking children. Journal of Fluency Disorders, 15, 127-134.

De Nil, L., & Brutten, G. (1991). Speech-associated attitudes of stuttering and nonstuttering children. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 34, 60-66.

De Nil, L., Brutten, G., & Claeys, M. (1985, November). Stutterers and nonstutterers: A normative investigation of children’s speech-associated attitudes. Paper presented at the ASHA Convention, Washington, DC.

DeKort, C. (1997). Validity measures of the communication attitude test. (Unpublished Master’s Thesis). University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada.

Erickson, R. (1969). Assessing communication attitudes among stutterers. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 12, 711-724.

Ezrati-Vinacour, R., Platzky, R., & Yairi, E. (2001). The young child’s awareness of stuttering-like disfluency. Journal of Speech, Language and Hearing Research, 44, 368-380.

Gačnik, M., & Vanryckeghem, M. (2014). The Slovenian Communication Attitude Test (CAT-SLO): A comparison of the communication attitude of Slovenian children who do and do not stutter. Cross-Cultural Communication, 10, 5, 1-7.

Green, T. (1998). The reactions of elementary school children who stutter to social speech interactions. Logopedics, Phoniatrics, Vocology, 23, 3-10.

Grinager Ambrose, N., & Yairi, E. (1994). The development of awareness of stuttering in preschool children. Journal of Fluency Disorders, 19, 229-245.

Guitar, B., & Grims, S. (1977, November). Developing a scale to assess communication attitudes in children who stutter. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association, Atlanta, GA.

Guitar, B. (2014). Stuttering: An integrated approach to its nature and treatment (4th ed.), Baltimore: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Gustavsson, M., & Karltorp, L (2010). Normering av communication attitude test for preschool and kindergarten children who stutter (KiddyCAT) för svenska barn 3–6 år. Master’s Thesis, Göteborg University.

Iverach, L., & Rapee, R. (2014). Social anxiety disorders and stuttering: Current status and future directions. Journal of Fluency Disorders, 40, 69-82.

Jacksic-Jelcic, S., & Brestovci, B. (2000). Communication attitudes of children who stutter and those who do not. Journal of Fluency Disorders, 25, 208.

Johannisson, T., Wennerfeldt, S., Havstam, C., Naeslund, M., Jacobson, K., & Lohmander, A. (2009). The Communication Attitude Test (CAT-S): normative values for 220 Swedish children. International Journal of Language and Communication Disorders, 44, 813-825.

Johnson, W., Brown, S., Curtis, J., Edney, C., & Keaster, J. (1956). Speech Handicapped School Children (3rd ed.). New York: Harper & Row.

Kawai, N., Healey, C., Nagasawa, T., & Vanryckeghem, M. (2012). Communication Attitude of Japanese School-Age Children Who Stutter. Journal of Communication Disorders, 45, 348-354.

Kerlinger, F. (2000). Foundations of behavioral research: Educational and psychological inquiry (4th Ed.). New York, Holt, Rinehart and Winston.

Langevin, M., Packman, A., & Onslow, M. (2010). Parent perceptions of the impact of stuttering on their prschoolers and themselves. Journal of Communication Disorders, 43, 407-423.

Liebert, R., & Langenbach Liebert, L. (1995). Science and behavior. An introduction to methods of psychological research. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Mahr, G., & Torosian, T. (1999). Anxiety and social phobia in stuttering. Journal of Fluency Disorders, 24, 119-126.

Nagasawa, T., & Kawai, N. (1998). A study of attitude change of stuttering children. Bulletin of the Faculty of School Education, Hiroshima University, Part I(20), 97-108.

Neale, J., & Liebert, R. (1986). Science and behavior. Preutice – Hall, NJ: Englewood, Cliffs.

Perkins, W. (1986). Discoordination of phonation with articulation and respiration. In G. Shames & H. Rubin (Eds.), Stuttering then and now (pp.82-87). Columbus, OH: Charles E. Merill.

Prins, D., & Lohr, F. (1968). A study of the behavioral components of stuttered speech. (Final Report No. 6-2382; Grant No OEG-3-6-062382-1882). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare.

Prins, D., & Lohr, F. (1972). Behavioral dimensions of stuttered speech. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 15, 61-71.

Schaerlaekens A., Zink I., & Van Ommeslaeghe K. (2003). Reynell Taalontwikkelingsschalen © 1983 Berkhout Nijmegen B.V. SZ Lisse, Nederland: Swets & Zeitlinger B.V.

Sheehan, J. G. (1970). Stuttering: Research and therapy. New York: Harper & Row.

Shumak, I. (1955). A Speech Situation Rating Sheet for Stutterers. In W. Johnson & R. R. Leutenegger (Eds.), Stuttering in Children and Adults. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

Silverman, F. (1970). Concern of elementary-school stutterers about their stuttering. Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders, 35, 361-363.

Smith, K., Iverach, L, O’Brian, S., Kefalianos, E., & Reilly, S. (2014). Anxiety of children and adolescents who stutter: A review. Journal of Fluency Disorders, 40, 22-34.

Van Riper, C. (1982). The nature of stuttering (2nd ed.). Prospect Heights, IL: Waveland Press.

Vanryckeghem, M., & Brutten, G. (2011). The BigCAT: A normative and comparative investigation of the communication attitude of stuttering and nonstuttering adults. Journal of Communication Disorders, 44, 200-206.

Vanryckeghem, M., & Brutten, G. (2012). A Comparative investigation of the BigCAT and Erickson S-24 measures of speech-associated attitude. Journal of Communication Disorders, 45, 340-347.

Vanryckeghem, M., & Brutten, G. (1992a). The Communication Attitude Test: A reliability investigation. Journal of Fluency Disorders, 3, 177-190.

Vanryckeghem, M., & Brutten, G. (1992b). The Communication Attitude Test: A repeated measures of reliability investigation of nonstutterers. Unpublished manuscript, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale.

Vanryckeghem, M., & Brutten, G. (1997). The speech-associated attitude of children who do and do not stutter and the differential effect of age. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 6, 67-73.

Vanryckeghem, M., & Brutten, G. (2001). The behavior assessment battery: A research pathway. Journal of Fluency Disorders, 26, 349-352.

Vanryckeghem, M., & Brutten, G. (2007). The KiddyCAT: Communication attitude test for preschool and kindergarten children who stutter. San Diego, CA: Plural Publishing, Inc.

Vanryckeghem, M., Brutten G., & Hernandez, L. (2005). A comparative investigation of the speech-associated attitude of preschool and kindergarten childeren who do en do not stutter. Journal of Fluency Disorders, 30(4), 307-318.

Vanryckeghem, M., Brutten, G., Uddin, N., & Van Borsel, J. (2004). A Behavior Checklist comparative investigation of the speech-associated coping responses of adults who do and do not stutter. Journal of Fluency Disorders, 29, 237-250.

Vanryckeghem, M., Hylebos, C., Peleman, M., & Brutten, G. (2001). The relationship between mal-attitude and negative emotion among children who stutter. Journal of Fluency Disorders, 26, 1-15.

Węsierska, K., Vanryckeghem, M. (2015). A comparison of communicative attitudes among stuttering and nonstuttering Polish preschoolers using the KiddyCAT. Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences. In press.

Węsierska, K., Vanryckeghem, M., Jeziorczak, B., & Wilk, B. (2014). Porównanie postaw komunikacyjnych mówiących płynnie i jąkających się polskojęzycznych dzieci w wieku przedszkolnym [A comparison of communicative attitudes of stuttering and nonstuttering Polish-speaking preschool children]. Forum Logopedyczne, 22, 70-79.

Wingate, M. (1964). Recovery from stuttering. Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders, 29, 312-321.

Woods, C. L. (1974). Social position and speaking competence of stuttering and normally fluent boys. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 17, 740-747.

Yaruss, J. S. & Quesal, R. (2006). Overall Assessment of the Speaker’s Experience of Stuttering (OASES): Documenting multiple outcomes in stuttering treatment. Journal of Fluency Disorders, 31, 90-115.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3968/%25x

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2015 Martine Vanryckeghem, T. De Niels, S. Vanrobaeys

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Share us to:   


Reminder

  • How to do online submission to another Journal?
  • If you have already registered in Journal A, then how can you submit another article to Journal B? It takes two steps to make it happen:

1. Register yourself in Journal B as an Author

  • Find the journal you want to submit to in CATEGORIES, click on “VIEW JOURNAL”, “Online Submissions”, “GO TO LOGIN” and “Edit My Profile”. Check “Author” on the “Edit Profile” page, then “Save”.

2. Submission

  • Go to “User Home”, and click on “Author” under the name of Journal B. You may start a New Submission by clicking on “CLICK HERE”.
  • We only use four mailboxes as follows to deal with issues about paper acceptance, payment and submission of electronic versions of our journals to databases: caooc@hotmail.com; office@cscanada.net; ccc@cscanada.net; ccc@cscanada.org

 Articles published in Cross-Cultural Communication are licensed under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 (CC-BY).

 CROSS-CULTURAL COMMUNICATION Editorial Office

Address: 1020 Bouvier Street, Suite 400, Quebec City, Quebec, G2K 0K9, Canada. 
Telephone: 1-514-558 6138 
Website: Http://www.cscanada.net; Http://www.cscanada.org 
E-mail:caooc@hotmail.com; office@cscanada.net

Copyright © Canadian Academy of Oriental and Occidental Culture