The Role of the Public and Employee Relations Department in Increasing Social Support in the Diverse Workplaces of the United Arab Emirates

Badreya Al-Jenaibi


This paper examines the social support available to foreign employees in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) through the Public and Employee Relations departments of their employers. The research reports on how foreign employees find social support and who mentors them in the first year. Information was collected and analyzed from interviews with both new employees and with members of the Public and Employee Relations departments. It addresses the questions of what are the main problems and stressors that new workers face, what kind of social support foreign workers receive in their first year, and the response of Public and Employee Relations departments. It concludes with recommendations for improving the support structure for diverse new employees.
Key words: Employee Relations; Public Relations; Human Resources; Social Support; Stress and Buffer theory; Immigrants; United Arab Emirates

Resumé: Cet article examine le soutien social offert aux employés étrangers aux Emirats arabes unis (EAU) à travers les services des relations publiques avec les employés de leurs employeurs. La recherche présente la façon dont les employés étrangers trouvent le soutien social et qui sont leurs mentors dans la première année. L'information a été recueillie et analysée à partir d'entretiens avec à la fois les nouveaux employés et les membres des services des relations publiques avec les employés. Il aborde les questions de ce que sont les problèmes principaux et les facteurs de stress confrontés par les nouveaux travailleurs, quel genre de soutien social des travailleurs étrangers reçoivent dans leur première année, et la réponse des services des relations publiques avec les employés. Il conclut l'article en faisant des recommandations d'améliorer la structure de soutien pour les nouveaux employés.
Mots-clés: Relations Avec les EmployÉS; Relations Publiques; Ressources Humaines; Soutien Social; ThÉOrie de Stress Et de Tampon; Immigrants; Emirats Arabes Unis


Employee Relations; Public Relations; Human Resources; Social Support; Stress and Buffer theory; Immigrants; United Arab Emirates ;Relations Avec les EmployÉS; Relations Publiques; Ressources Humaines; Soutien Social; ThÉOrie de Stress Et de Tampon; Immig


Bailey, M. (1994). Do physicists use case studies?. Research in public administration. Sage Publications.

Bliese, P. & Britt, T. (2001). Social support, group consensus and stressor-strain relationships: Social context matters. Journal of Organizational Behavior. 22(4), 425.

Clogg, Clifford C. (1995). Latent class models, In Handbook of statistical modeling for the social and behavioral sciences, edited by Gerhard Arminger,Clifford C. Clogg, and Michael E. Sobel. New York: Plenum Press.

Cutrona, C. E. (1996). Social support in couples. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Edelman. (2010). Good purpose goes global. Retrieved Nov. 6, 2007 from

Gale Reference Team. (2010). Giving and receiving social support at work: The roles of personality and reciprocity [An article from: Journal of Vocational Behavior] Reviews. p.b3

Glanz, K., Rimer, B.K. & Lewis, F.M. (2002). Health behavior and health education. Theory research and practice. San Fransisco: Wiley & Sons.

Gannon,L, Vaux, A & Rhodes, K. (1992). Two-domain model of well-being: Everyday events, social support, and gender-related personality factors. Journal of Research in Personality, 26(3), 288-301.

Garvey, B. and Megginson, D. (2004) Odysseus, Telemachus and Mentor: Stumbling into, Searching for and Signposting the Road to Desire. The International Journal of Mentoring and Coaching, II(I).

Hill, R. (1949). Families under stress. New York: Harper and Brothers.

Janesick, V. & Denzin, N. (1998). Strategies of qualitative research. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.

Johnson, W. B. (2007). On being a mentor. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.

Jou, Y. & Fukada, H. (2002). Stress, health, and reciprocity and sufficiency of social support: The case of university students in Japan. The Journal of Social Psychology, 142(3), 353.

Kelly, K. (2003). Good practice in the conduct and reporting of survey research. International Journal for Quality in Healthcare. 15, 261. Retrieved Nov. 6, 2007 from

Kendler, K. et al. (2005). Sex differences in the relationship between social support and risk for major depression: A longitudinal study of opposite-sex twin pairs. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 162(2), 250.

Kenneth S. Kendler, M.D., John Myers, M.S., & Carol A. Prescott. (2005). Sex Differences in the Relationship between Social Support and Risk for Major Depression: A Longitudinal Study of Opposite-Sex Twin Pairs. Retrieved May 14, 2007 from

Knoll, N., Schwarzer, R., Pfüller, B., & Kienle, R. (2009). Transmission of depressive symptoms in couples undergoing assisted reproduction treatment. European Psychologist, 14, 5-15.

Lakey, B. (2002). Social support. Health behavior constructs: Theory, measurement & research. National Cancer Institute. Retrieved Oct. 25, 2007 from

Lakey, B. & Lutz, C. (2001). How people make support judgments. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 81(6), 1070.

Lakey, B., & Cohen, S. (2000). Social support theory and selecting measures of social support. In S. Cohen, L. U. Gordon & B. H. Gottlieb (Eds.) Social support measurement and interventions: A guide for health and social scientists. New York: Oxford.

Laudicina, P.(2010). The Diversity Imperative: Fostering institutions that put a premium on inclusion . Retrieved Nov. 4, 2010 from

Lentfer, J. (2011). The wisdom of dlalanathi: Reflections on organizational growth, Retrieved May 30, 2011 from

Liebler, G.& Sandefur, C. (1998). Exchanging social support with friends, neighbors, and coworkers, Retrieved May 14, 2010 from

Mashood, Verhoeven & Chansarkar. (2010). Proceedings of annual hawaii international business research conference. Retrieved November. 5, 2010 from

Marshall, Catherine & Gretchen B. (1999). Designing Qualitative Research. 3rd Ed. London: Sage Publications, 115.

McDonald,L. (1998). A Multi-Family Approach: Families and Schools Together (FAST) Builds Protective Factors In Potentially Neglectful Families. Proceedings of the conference held in Madison, Wisconsin April 19-21, 1998. Retrieved Nov. 5, 2010 from

McKinney, M. (2010). Develop New Social Support Systems. Retrieved Oct. 6, 2010 from

Neely, L. et al. (2006). Social support and affect: An experimental, laboratory investigation. Journal of Personality, 74(4), 1.

Olson , L. (2009). Social recognition increases employees’ support for companies. Retrieved August. 8, 2010 from

Patton, M. Q. (1990). Qualitative evaluation and research methods (2nd ed.). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Peters, G.R. & Kaiser, M. A. (1985). The Role of Friends and Neighbors in Providing Social Support, In Social Support Networks and the Care of the Elderly: Theory, Research, Practice, edited by W. Sauer and R. Coward. New York: Springer.

Pugliesi, K. & Shook, S. (1998). Gender, ethnicity, and network characteristics: Variation in social support resources. Sex Roles, 38 (3/4), 215.

Revenson, T. A., Kayser, K., & Bodenmann, G. (Eds.). (2005). Couples coping with stress: Emerging perspectives on dyadic coping. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Saltzman, K. & Holahan, C. (2002). Social support, self-efficacy, and depressive symptoms: An integrative model. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 21(3),309.

Schwarzer, R., & Knoll, N. (2007). Functional roles of social support within the stress and coping process: A theoretical and empirical overview. International Journal of Psychology, 42(4), 243-252.

Schwarzer, R., & Leppin, A. (1991). Social support and health: A theoretical and empirical overview. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 8, 99-127.

S. L. Brown, R. M. Nesse, A. D. Vinokur, & D. M. Smith (2003). Providing social support may be more beneficial than receiving it: Results from a prospective study of mortality, Psychological Science, 14(4), 320-327.

Taylor, S. E., Welch, W. T., Kim, H. S., & Sherman, D. K. (2007). Cultural differences in the impact of social support on psychological and biological stress responses. Psychological Science, 18, 831-837.

Taylor, S. E. (2006). Tend and befriend: Biobehavioral bases of affiliation under stress. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 15, 273-277.

Uehara, Edwina. (1990). Dual exchange theory, social networks, and informal social support. American Journal of Sociology, 96, 521-57.

Vedder, P. et al. (2005). Perceived social support and well-being in school: The role of students’ ethnicity. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 34(3), 269.

Wasserman, Stanley, and Katherine Faust. (1994). Social network analysis: Methods and applications. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Wellman, Barry, and Scot Wortley. (1990). Different strokes from different folks: Community ties and social support. American Journal of Sociology, 96, 558-88.

White, Douglas R. and Karl P. Reitz. (1983). Graph and semigroup homomorphisms on netwoks and relations, Social Networks, 5, 193-234

Wise, D. & Stake, J. (2002). The moderating roles of personal and social resources on the relationship between dual expectations (for instrumentality and expressiveness) and well-being. The Journal of Social Psychology, 142(1),109.

Wu, Lawrence. (1983). Local blockmodel algebras for analyzing social networks (pp. 272-313). In Samuel Leinhardt (ed.) Sociological Methodology 1983-84. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Yamagishi, Toshio and Karen S. Cook. (1993). Generalized Exchange and Social Dilemmas. Social Psychology Quarterly, 56, 235-48.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2011 Badreya Al-Jenaibi

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Share us to:   


  • How to do online submission to another Journal?
  • If you have already registered in Journal A, then how can you submit another article to Journal B? It takes two steps to make it happen:

1. Register yourself in Journal B as an Author

  • Find the journal you want to submit to in CATEGORIES, click on “VIEW JOURNAL”, “Online Submissions”, “GO TO LOGIN” and “Edit My Profile”. Check “Author” on the “Edit Profile” page, then “Save”.

2. Submission

  • Go to “User Home”, and click on “Author” under the name of Journal B. You may start a New Submission by clicking on “CLICK HERE”.
  • We only use four mailboxes as follows to deal with issues about paper acceptance, payment and submission of electronic versions of our journals to databases:;;;

 Articles published in Cross-Cultural Communication are licensed under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 (CC-BY).


Address: 9375 Rue de Roissy Brossard, Québec, J4X 3A1, Canada 
Telephone: 1-514-558 6138 
Website: Http://; Http://;

Copyright © Canadian Academy of Oriental and Occidental Culture