Language Contribution to Inequality: African American Female Students' Self-efficacy and Math Anxiety

farida Bouattoura


This paper examines language contribution to inequality through the lens of African American Female Students' Self-efficacy and Math Anxiety. Studies have defined Self-efficacy as one's perceived ability and capability, and that it builds on the language and culture around students. Research stated that low levels of math literacy and self-efficacy beliefs are related to gender, school type, class, mathematics degree, parents' educational status, and economic status. The result is a twofold dilemma for African American females, since through race, they face higher chances of math anxiety and an elevated probability of lingering effects throughout their academic experience because of gender. The article further suggests that educational systems need to incorporate self-efficacy as the theoretical framework for curriculum and standard structure. The article concludes that recommended use of self-efficacy as a theoretical framework is necessary to analyze everyday unintentional language oppression, and its manifestation through disciplinary literacy such as mathematics.


Math anxiety; Self-efficacy; language oppression

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