Indonesian Democracy Comes When the Kingdom System Has Strong Roots: Serious Problems Leading to Simultaneous National Elections in 2024

M. Si Osbin Samosir


The study of finding the right posture for Indonesian democracy has never been completed. The reason is that the history of democracy as understood in Europe and America does not have deep roots in Indonesia since long ago. Moreover, compared to 55 years since independence, Indonesia’s democracy has actually made great leaps and bounds since the start of reforms in 1998, compared to Suharto’s authoritarian (New Order) rule from 1966 to 21 May 1998, and during Soekarno’s reign from the country’s independence. from 1945 to 1966. A year after the fall of Suharto on 21 May 1998, Indonesia held its first democratic elections on 7 June 1999. The elections were participated by 48 political parties.
In 2004, Indonesia held its first direct presidential election. A year later, Indonesia held its first regional head elections, in which voters directly elected governors, regents, and mayors. Thus, the elections continued until the last December 9, 2020 until they got their form later in the national Simultaneous General Election in 2024 later. The question is, is the current practice of democracy in accordance with all democratic values as intended by the Pancasila ideology as the basic foundation for Indonesia in all political actions?
Pancasila as the state ideology of Indonesia contains five principles, namely: 1). The belief in one God, 2). Just and civilized humanity, 3). Indonesian unity, 4. Democracy under the wise guidance of representative consultation, 5). Social justice for all peoples of Indonesia. The founding fathers formulated an understanding of democracy based on the traditional practices of democracy at the grassroots level that have been going on for centuries throughout the country. But what is happening now, Indonesia is only imitating the posture of Western/European democracy.
In the experience of Indonesian democracy, the figure of Indonesian democracy from 1945 to 2021 is quite fragile because the democratic tradition did not develop on Indonesian soil, democracy has its roots, developed in Europe and has been accepted in Indonesia since November 1945, because democracy highly respects human dignity and is a type of government that right in the modern country.



Pancasila; Founding fathers; Democracy; General election

Full Text:



-- (1978). Indonesia Sues (Bung Karno’s Defense Speech in front of Landraad Bandung 1930). Solo: Sasongko Publishing Agency.

-- (1989). On Democracy. New Haven: Yale University Press.

-- (1995)Minutes of the Session of the Investigating Committee for Preparatory Efforts for Indonesian Independence (BPUPKI) Preparatory Committee for Indonesian Independence (PPKI). Jakarta: State Secretariat of the Republic of Indonesia.

-- (2014). Profiles of Members of the House of Representatives and Members of the Regional Representative Council of the Republic of Indonesia for the period 2014 - 2019. Jakarta: General Election Commission,.

-- (2019). Profiles of Members of the House of Representatives and Members of the Regional Representative Council of the Republic of Indonesia for the period 2019 - 2024. Jakarta: General Election Commission.

--, Audrey R. (1985). Regional dynamics of the Indonesia revolution: Unity from diversity. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.

--, Franz (2002). The Ideals of Bung Hatta State. Paper in a national seminar on Dissecting Bung Hatta’s Struggle Thought. National Archives of the Republic of Indonesia, 14 August 2002.

--, Mohammad (1931). Pendjadjahan and national problems. Daulat Ra’jat No. 11, 30 December.

--, Mohammad (1932). Indonesia in Perhoeboengan Doenia. Daulat Ra’jat No. 40, 20 October.

--, Mohammad (1933). Collectivisme Toea and Baroe. Daulat Ra’yat No. 75, 10 October 1933.

Alam, W. T. (2003). Sukarno vs. Hatta. Jakarta: Gramedia Pustaka Utama.

Almond, G. A. (2000). Socialization, Culture and Political Participation. In M. Mas’oed and C. MacAndrews (Eds.), Comparison of political systems, Yogyakarta: Gadjah Mada University Press.

Anderson, B., & Kahin, A. (eds). Interpreting indonesia politics: Thirteen contributions to the debate. New York: Cornell Modern Indonesia Project, Ithaca.

Anugerah, P. (2014). Asian democracy index: The 2014 case of Indonesia. Jakarta: Center for Political Studies (Puskapol) UI.

Brown, B. E., & Macridis, R. C. (Eds.) (1996). Comparative politics: Notes and readings (8th ed.). Belmont: Wadsworth Publishing Company.

Budiardjo, M. (1993). Basics of political science. Jakarta: Publisher PT Gramedia Pustaka Utama.

Burns, E. M., et al. (1984). Western civilization: Their history and their culture. New York: W.W. Norton & Company.

Center for Political Studies (Puskapol) UI. (2014). The results of the Asian Democracy Index Research: The Case of Indonesia in 2014. UI Postgraduate, Jl Salemba Raya, Central Jakarta, Friday (12/12/2014).

Collection of Minutes of Sessions from the Indonesian Independence Preparatory Investigation Agency (BPUPKI) (29 May 1945 - 16 July 1945) and the Preparatory Committee for Indonesian Independence (PPKI) (18 and 19 August 1945) relating to the Compilation of the 1945 Constitution. Jakarta: State Secretariat of the Republic of Indonesia, [without year]).

Dahl, R. A. (1989). Democrcy and its critics. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Dahm, B. (1987). Sukarno and the independence struggle. Jakarta: LP3ES.

Feith, H. (1962). The decline of constitutional democracy in Indonesia. Ithaca and London, Cornell University Press.

Fuqoha and Sukendar (October 2018). Dynamics of Islamic Social and Political Movement in the 2019 Indonesian Presidential Election. In The Proceedings of the National Conference of Administrative Sciences. Bandung: STIA LAN Bandung.

Gabriel A., & G. Bigham Powell, Jr. (1978). Comparative politics, system, process and policy, second edition, Boston: Little, Brown and Company.

Hatta, M. (1952). Collection of Essays (I). Jakarta: Publisher of “Bulan Bintang”.

Honorary Council Performance Report for the 2019 Election. Jakarta: DKPP RI, 2019.

Honorary Council Performance Report for the 2020 Election. Jakarta: DKPP RI, 2020.

Kahin, A. (1999). Rebellion to integration: West Sumatra and the Indonesian polity, 1926-1998. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.

Kahin, G. M. (1980). Nationalism and revolution in Indonesia. Kuala Lumpur: Language and library council of the Malaysian Ministry of Education.

Khan, R. A., et al. (1977). An introduction to political science, revised edition. Georgetown, Ontario: Irwin-Dorsey Limited.

Kleden, I. (2019). Pancasila, Ideology and Weltanschauung (paper). Delivered at the KWI Lay Apostolic Commission Workshop on October 1, 2019 at Atmajya Catholic University, Jakarta.

Kusmayati, A. (1990). Democracy in Indonesia: Parliamentary democracy and Pancasila democracy (Collection of writings). Jakarta: PT Gramedia Pustaka Utama.

Laffan, M. (2015). History of Islam in the Archipelago. Yogyakarta: Bentang Pustaka.

Leeds, C. A. (1975). Political studies (2nd ed.). London: MacDonnald & Evans, Ltd..

Maarif, . S. (2015). Islam in the frame of indonesianness and humanity: A historical reflection. Jakarta: Mizan.

Magnis-Suseno SJ, Franz (1995). Seeking the figure of democracy: A philosophical study. Jakarta: PT Gramedia Pustaka Utama.

Mazour, A. G., & Peoples, J. M. (1975). Men and nations: A world history (3rd ed.). New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.

Meyer, T. (2005). Democracy: An introduction to application. Jakarta: Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung Indonesian Representative Office.

Nasution, A. B. (1995). The aspirations of constitutional government in Indonesia. Jakarta: Grafiti.

Rauf, M. (no year). Deliberation for Consensus: A Way of Determining Political Policy in Political Development in Indonesia. Jakarta: UIPress.

Salim, E. (2020). Democracy in Indonesia moving from stagnation to regression. In, Monday, September 28, 2020.

Schumpeter, J. A. (1984). Symposium on capitalism, socialism, democracy. Jakarta: Publisher PT Gramedia.

Silalahi, H. T. (2009). Christian Cadres: Urgency and Challenges. Call to Build the Nation and the State. Basic Guidelines and Directions for Christian Political Involvement. Jakarta: PDKB Love for the Nation.

Soekarno (1964). Under the flag of the revolution, Volume I. Jakarta: Publishing Committee under the Flag of the Revolution.

Soekarno (2016). The philosophy of Pancasila according to Bung Karno. (editor Floriberta Aning). Yogyakarta: Media Pressindo.

Sulaeman (2009). Moh Hatta’s democratic thought, [dissertation]. Jakarta: Political Science UI.

Surjo, et al. (2001). Djoko. Religion and social change: Studies on the relationship between Islam, society, and Indonesian socio-political structures. Yogyakarta: Center for Social and Southeast Asian Studies, UGM.

Zainuddin, A. R. (2004). Islamic political thought: Islam, Middle East and the clash of Ideologies. Jakarta: Penerbit Pencil-324.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2021 M.Si OSBIN SAMOSIR

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Share us to:   


  • How to do online submission to another Journal?
  • If you have already registered in Journal A, then how can you submit another article to Journal B? It takes two steps to make it happen:

1. Register yourself in Journal B as an Author

  • Find the journal you want to submit to in CATEGORIES, click on “VIEW JOURNAL”, “Online Submissions”, “GO TO LOGIN” and “Edit My Profile”. Check “Author” on the “Edit Profile” page, then “Save”.

2. Submission

Online Submission:

  • Go to “User Home”, and click on “Author” under the name of Journal B. You may start a New Submission by clicking on “CLICK HERE”.
  • We only use four mailboxes as follows to deal with issues about paper acceptance, payment and submission of electronic versions of our journals to databases:;;;

 Articles published in Cross-Cultural Communication are licensed under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 (CC-BY).


Address: 1055 Rue Lucien-L'Allier, Unit #772, Montreal, QC H3G 3C4, Canada.
Telephone: 1-514-558 6138 
Website: Http://; Http://;

Copyright © Canadian Academy of Oriental and Occidental Culture