Effects of Cooperative Learning and Contingency Contracting on Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Among Pupils With Learning Disabilities in Mathematics in Owerri, Nigeria

Charles N. Ugwuegbulam, K. E. Nwachukwu, Duru Damasius Ngozi


The study adopted pretest-posttest, control group quasi-experimental design with a 3x2x2 factorial matrix. Multi-stage sampling technique was used to select ninety participants from three randomly selected public primary schools in the three local governments in Owerri. The participants were randomly assigned to treatments and control groups. Participants in the two treatment groups were exposed to eight weeks of cooperative learning strategy and contingency contracting technique. Two instruments used were: Vanderbilt ADHD Diagnostic Teacher Rating Scale (α= 0.93) and Woodcock-Johnson III Mathematics Fluency Achievement Tests Scale (α= 0.84). Two hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance. Data were analysed using Analysis of Covariance. There is a significant main effect of treatment on ADHD pupils with learning disabilities in mathematics (F (2, 78) = 127.29, p<0.05). Cooperative learning strategy was more effective in improving Mathematics competence skills ( = 96.6) of ADHD pupils with learning disabilities in mathematics than contingency contracting technique. Furthermore, there is no significant interaction effect of treatment, age and gender on ADHD pupils with learning disabilities in mathematics in the study. Therefore, the findings of the study suggest that teachers should endevour to use appropriate teaching methods, cooperative learning strategy and contingency contracting technique to reinforce positive attitude to teaching-learning situations among ADHD pupils with learning disabilities in mathematics. 


Cooperative learning strategy; Contingency contracting technique; Mathematics disabilities

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3968/11552


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