Study of Mechanisms of Enhanced Oil Recovery by Multi-Thermal Fluids

ZHANG Fengyi, XU Wankun, LIU Xiaohong


A new process using multi-thermal fluids as an innovative technique for recovery of offshore heavy oil has been used in Bohai oilfield pilot tests. However, the mechanisms of its enhanced oil recovery and reservoir adaptability (sensitivity) have not been studied in depth. Through theoretical, numerical simulation and experimental analyses, the stimulation mechanisms of various components in this process and the coupling effects between these components in terms of enhanced oil recovery are studied and analyzed in detail. In addition, using oil viscosity, rock permeability and heterogeneity parameters of heavy oil reservoirs in the Bohai oilfield, production results and adaptability to reservoir conditions between the standard steam stimulation process and the stimulation process of multi-thermal fluids are compared. The results indicate that the latter process can enlarge the radius of a thermally swept volume, increase formation energy, and reduce heat loss, but the total enthalpy carried by this process drops slightly. Consequently, the process of multi-thermal fluids stimulation is more suitable to heavy oil reservoirs whose oil viscosity is not too high, heterogeneity is relatively weak, oil formation is thin and natural energy is low.
Key words: Offshore heavy oil reservoirs; Multi-thermal fluids; Cyclic steam stimulation; Stimulation mechanism; Production efficiency; Reservoir adaptability; Bohai oilfield


Offshore heavy oil reservoirs; Multi-thermal fluids; Cyclic steam stimulation; Stimulation mechanism; Production efficiency; Reservoir adaptability; Bohai oilfield

Full Text:



[1] Wang, D., Cheng, D., Ran, J., & He, C. (2001). Nitrogen displacement technology for increasing cyclic steam stimulated heavy oil recovery. Drilling and Production Technology, 24(3), 25-28.

[2] Huo, G., & Fan, X. (2012). A numerical simulation study on flue gas injection assisted cyclic steam stimulated oil recovery technology. Petroleum Geology and Recovery Efficiency, 19(4), 59-61.

[3] Kuhlman, M. I. (2004, March). Expanded uses of nitrogen, oxygen and rich air for increased production of both light oil and heavy oil. Paper presented at SPE International Thermal Operations and Heavy Oil Symposium and Western Regional Meeting, Bakersfield, California.

[4] Lian, L., Qin, J., Yang, S., & Yang, Y. (2013). A critical review of modelling simulation on CO2 displacement of reservoir oil. Petroleum Geology and Recovery Efficiency, 20(2), 77-81.

[5] Li, Z., Tao, L., Zhang, K., Ren, S., Zhang, J., Li, J., & Zhao, H. (2008). Experimental study on CO2 dissolvability in tar sand bitumen (Viscosity > 50,000 mPa·s). Journal of China University of Petroleum: Edition of Natural Science, 32(5), 92-96.

[6] Li, Z. (2004). Experimental studies of CO2 dissolution impact on light oil phase behavior under reservoir condition. Journal of China University of Petroleum: Edition of Natural Science, 28(3), 43-48.

[7] Li, D., Su, Y., Gao, H., Wu, C., & Jiang, S. (2010). Characterization and controlling factors analysis on viscous fingering in CO2 immiscible displacement. Petroleum Geology and Recovery Efficiency, 17(3), 63-66.

[8] Liu, W. (1998). A literature review on very viscous crude oil (viscosity > 10,000 mPa·s) and tar sand bitumen (viscosity > 50,000 mPa·s) thermal recovery methodologies. Special Oil & Gas Reservoirs, 5(3), 1-8.

[9] Li, R., He, J., Tang, Y., Liu, W., Gan, Y., & Wang, X. (2006). An experimental study on using nitrogen-assisted steam stimulation to improve heavy oil recovery. Journal of Oil and Gas Technology, 28(1), 72-75.

[10] Yang, S., Wang, L., He, J., & Rong, G. (2004). CO2 huff “n” puff: Modeling analysis on enhanced oil production and field application. Journal of Xi’an Shiyou Univeristy: Natural Science, 19(6), 23-26.

[11] Huang, S. S. (1997, February). Comparative effectiveness of CO2, produced gas, and flue gas for enhanced heavy-oil recovery. Paper presented at International Thermal Operations and Heavy Oil Symposium, Bakersfield, California.

[12] Dong, M. Z., & Huang, S. S. (2002). Flue gas injection for heavy oil recovery. JCPT, 41(9), 44-50.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c)

Share us to:   


  • How to do online submission to another Journal?
  • If you have already registered in Journal A, then how can you submit another article to Journal B? It takes two steps to make it happen:

1. Register yourself in Journal B as an Author

  • Find the journal you want to submit to in CATEGORIES, click on “VIEW JOURNAL”, “Online Submissions”, “GO TO LOGIN” and “Edit My Profile”. Check “Author” on the “Edit Profile” page, then “Save”.

2. Submission

  • Go to “User Home”, and click on “Author” under the name of Journal B. You may start a New Submission by clicking on “CLICK HERE”.

We only use three mailboxes as follows to deal with issues about paper acceptance, payment and submission of electronic versions of our journals to databases:;;

 Articles published in Advances in Petroleum Exploration and Development are licensed under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 (CC-BY)


Address:1020 Bouvier Street, Suite 400, Quebec City, Quebec, G2K 0K9, Canada.

Telephone: 1-514-558 6138
Website: Http://

Copyright © 2010 Canadian Research & Development Centre of Sciences and Cultures