Vertical Profiles of Airborne PM in Po Valley During Wheat Harvest Activities
Po Valley and Friuli Plain in Italy and Belgian Plain in Europe, are areas with the highest concentration of solid particulate matter in all the world (European Space Agency, 2004). This implies that those areas does not respect the limits imposed by European Parliament in 2008. Aim of this study is the characterization of the particulate matter, through direct sampling in atmosphere to define physical properties and source of this particulate. A first campaign has been carried out in June-July 2009 in the Po Valley during farming activities of threshing, by means of a small aircraft (Cessna172P), that has been used as platform for collecting measure particles. Particle concentration has been measured for five aerodynamic equivalent diameters (0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0, 10.0µm) using a laser counter (LIGHTHOUSE HH3016). The acquisition has been carried out vertically profiling the atmosphere from 150 to 2400m. SEM, as well as SEM-EDS analysis on single particles, have been carried out with the aim to obtain detailed dimensional and morphological information to define origin, toxicity and the nature of organic matter (Germani & Buseck, 1991; Grassi, Narducci, & Tognotti, 2004).
Abbey, D. E., Ostro, B. E., & Peterson, F. (1995). Chronic respiratory symptoms associated with estimated long-term ambient concentrations of fine particulates less than 2.5 micron in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) and other air pollutants. Journal of Exposure Analysis and Environmental Epidemiology, 5, 137-159.
AGRIT. (2008). Indagine sull’occupazione territoriale delle coltivazioni a cereali in autunno-inverno in Italia.
Almeida, S. M., Pio, C. A., Freitas, M. C., Reis, M. A., & Trancoso, M. A. (2005). Source apportionment of fine and coarse PM in a sub-urban area at the Western European Coast. Atmospheric Environment, 39, 3127-3138.
Amodio, M., Bruno, P., Caselli, M., De Gennaro, G., Dambruoso, P. R., Daresta, B. E., ..., Tutino, M. (2008). Chemical characterization of fine PM during peak PM10 episodes in Apulia (South Italy). Atmospheric Research, 90, 313-325.
Amodio, M., Caselli, M., Gennaro, G., & Tutino, M. (2009). Particulate PAH sin two urban areas of Southern Italy: Impact of the sources, meteorological and background conditions on air quality. Environmental Research, 109, 812-820.
Bernabé, J. M., & Carretero, M. I. (2003). Boletín de Sociedad Española de Mineralogía [Spanish Society Bulletin of Mineralogy], 26, 167.
Bianchini, G., Laviano, R., Lovo, S., & Vaccaro, C. (2001). Chemical mineralogical characterisation of clay sediments around Ferrara: a tool for an environmental analysis. Applied Clay Sciences, 21, 165-176.
Bogo, H., Otero, M., Castro, P., Ozafrán, M. J., Kreiner, A., Calvo, E. J., & Negri, R. M. (2003). Study of atmospheric PM in Buenos Aires city. Atmospheric Environment, 37, 1135-1147.
Brewer, X. R., & Belzer, W. (2001). Assessment of metal concentrations in atmospheric particles from Burnaby Lake, British Columbia, Canada. Atmospheric Environment, 35, 5223-5233.
Brimblecombe, P. & Grossi, C. M. (2009). Millennium-long damage to building materials in London. Science of the Total Environment, 407, 1354-1361.
Campos-Ramos, A., Aragón-Piña, A., Galindo-Estrada, I., Querol, X., & Alastuey, A. (2009). Characterization of atmospheric aerosols by SEM in a rural area in the western part of México and ist relation with different pollution sources. Atmospheric Environment, 43, 6159-6167.
Chabas, A., & Lefèvr, R. A. (2000). Chemistry and microscopy of atmospheric particulates at Delos (Cyclades – Greece). Atmospheric Environment, 34, 225-238.
Chow, J. C., Watson, J. G., & Lowenthal, D. H. (1999). Temporal variations of PM2.5, PM10, and gaseous precursors during the 1995 integrated monitoring study in central California. Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association, 49, 16-24.
De La Campa, A. M. S., De La Rosa, J., Querol, X., Alastuey, A., & Mantilla, E. (2007). Geochemistry and origin of PM10 in the Huelva region, Southwestern Spain. Environmental Research, 103, 305-316.
European Space Agency. (2004). Global air pollution map. Envisat’s SCIAMACHY. Retrieved from http://www.esa.int/esaCP/SEM340NKPZD_Protecting_1.html
Frankel, R. S., & Aitken, D. W. (1970). Energy dispersive X-ray emission spectroscopy. Applied Spectroscopy, 24, 557-566.
Fromme, H., Diemer, J., Dietrich, S., Cyrys, J., Heinrich, J., Lang, W., …, Twardella, D. (2008). Chemical and morphological properties of PM10 and PM2.5 in school classrooms and outdoor air. Atmospheric Environment, 42, 6597-6605.
Germani, M. S., & Buseck, P. R. (1991). Automated scanning electron microscopy for atmospheric particles analysis. Analytical Chemistry, 63, 2232-2237.
Goodarzi, F. (2006). Morphology and chemistry of fine particles emitted from a Canadian coal-fired power plant. Fuel, 85, 273-280.
Grassi, C., Narducci, P., & Tognotti, L. (2004). Atmospheric PM by SEM-EDX. World Clean Air and Environmental Protection Congress.
Harrison, R. M., Jones, M., & Collins, G. (1999). Measurements of the physical properties of particles in the urban atmosphere. Atmospheric Environment, 33, 309-321.
Hiranuma, N., Brooks, S. D., Auvermann, B. W., & Littleton, R. (2008). Using environmental scanning electron microscopy to determine the hygroscopic properties of agricultural aerosols. Atmospheric Environment, 42, 1983-1994.
Hoek, G., Kos, G., Harrison, R. M., De Hartog, J., Meliefste, K., Ten Brink, H., …, Hameri, K. (2008). Indoor-outdoor relationship of particle number and mass in four European cities. Atmospheric Environment, 42, 156-169.
Hopke, P. K. (2008). The use of source apportionment for air quality management and health assessment. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, 71, 555-563.
Husar, R. B., Tratt, D. M., Schichtel, B. A., Falke, S. R., Li, F., Jaffe, D., …, Malm, W. C. (2001). Asian dust events of April 1998. Journal of Geophysical Research, 106, 18317-18330.
Kelly, R. J. (2008). Occupational medicine implications of engineered nanoscale PM. Division of Chemical Health and Safety of the American Chemical Society, 1-42.
Laden, F., Schwartz, J., Speizer, F. E., & Dockery, D. W. (2006). Reduction in fine particulate air pollution and mortality: Extended follow-up of the Harvard six cities study. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 173, 667-672.
Macias, E. S., Zwicker, J. O., Ouimette, J. R., Hering, S. V., Friedlander, S. K., Cahill, T .A., ..., Richards, L. W. (1981). Regional haze case studies in the south western U.S. – I. Aerosol chemical composition. Atmospheric Environment, 15, 1971-1986.
Maravelaki-Kalaitzaki, P., & Biscontin, G. (1999). Origin, characteristics and morphology of weathering crusts on Istria stone in Venice. Atmospheric Environment, 33, 1699-1709.
Marcazzan, G. M., Vaccaio, S., Valli, G., & Vecchi, R. (2001). Characterisation of PM10 and PM2.5 in the ambient air of Milan (Italy). Atmospheric Environment, 35, 4639-4650.
Mazzei, F., D’Alessandro, A., Lucarelli, F., & Marengo, F. (2006). Elemental composition and source apportionment of PM near a steel plant in Genoa (Italy). Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B, 249, 548-551.
Pope 3rd, C. A. (2000). Epidemiology of fine particulate air pollution and human health: Biological mechanisms and who’s at risk? Environmental Health Perspectives, 108, 713-723.
Pope 3rd, C. A., Burnett, R. T., Thun, M. J., Calle, E. E., Krewski, D., & Ito, K. (2002). Lung cancer, cardiopulmonary mortality, and long-term exposure to fine particulate air pollution. JAMA, 287, 1132-1141.
Pope 3rd, C. A., Thun, M. J., Namboodiri, M. M., Dockery, D. W., Evans, J. S., Speizer, F. E., & Heath, C. W. (1995). Particulate air pollution as a predictor of mortality in a prospective study of US adults. American Journal of Respiratory Critical and Care Medicine, 151, 669-674.
Querol, X., Alastuey, A., De La Rosa, J., Sánchez De La Campa, A., Plana, F., & Ruiz, C. R. (2002). Source apportionment analysis of atmospheric particulates in an industrialised urban site in south western Spain. Atmospheric Environment, 36, 3113-3125.
Ragosta, M., Caggiano, R., D’Emilio, M., Sabia, S., Trippetta, S., & Macchiato, M. (2006). PM10 and heavy metal measurements in an industrial area of southern Italy. Atmospheric Research, 81, 304-319.
Reis, M. A., Oliveira, O. R., Alves, L. C., Rita, E. M. C., Rodrigues, F., Fialho, P., ..., Soares, J. C. (2002). Comparison of continental Portugal and Azores Islands aerosol during a Sahara dust storm. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, 189, 272-278.
Rodriguez, S., Querol, X., Alastuey, A., Viana, M., Alarcon, M., Mantilla, E., & Ruiz, C. R. (2004). Comparative PM10–PM2.5 source contribution study at rural urban and industrial sites during PM episodes in eastern Spain. Science of the Total Environment, 328, 95-113.
Ryall, D. B., Derwent, R. G., Manning, A. J., Redington, A. L., Corden, J., Millington, W., …, Fuller, G. W. (2002). The origin of high particulate concentrations over the United Kingdom, March 2000. Atmospheric Environment, 36, 1363-1378.
Sabbioni, C. (1995). Contribution of atmospheric deposition to the formation of damage layers. Science of the Total Environment, 167, 49-55.
Salvador, P., Artíñano, B., Querol, X., Alastuey, A., & Costoya, M. (2007). Characterisation of local and external contributions of atmospheric PM at a background coastal site. Atmospheric Environment, 41, 1-17.
Samek, L. (2009). Chemical characterization of selected metals by X-ray fluorescence method in PM collected in the area of Krakow, Poland. Microchemical Journal, 92, 140-144.
Schwartz, J., Dockery, D. W., & Neas, L. M. (1996). Mortality Associated Specifically With Fine Particles. Journal of Air and Waste Management Association, 46, 927-939.
Scientific Committee on Emerging and Newly Identified Health Risks. (2005). New evidence of air pollution effects on human health and the environment. SCHER.
Scientific Committee on Emerging and Newly Identified Health Risks. (2006). The appropriateness of existing methodologies to assess the potential risks associated with engineered and adventitious products of nanotechnologies. SCHER.
Takahashi, K., Minoura, H., & Sakamoto, K. (2008). Chemical composition of atmospheric aerosols in the general environment and around a trunk road in the Tokyo metropolitan area. Atmospheric Environment, 42, 113-125.
Tittarelli, A., Borgini, A., Bertoldi, M., De Saeger, E., Ruprecht, A., Stefanoni, R., ..., Crosignani, P. (2008). Estimation of particle mass concentration in ambient air using a particle counter. Atmospheric Environment, 42, 8543-8548.
Tombach, I., Seigneur, C., McDade, C., & Heisler, S. (1996). Dallas-Fort Worth winter haze project. In: EPRI TR-106775-V3 Vol. 3, 1996—Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA.
Torfs, K., & Van Grieken, R. (1997). Chemical relations between atmospheric aerosols, deposition and stone decay layers on historic buildings at the Mediterranean coast. Atmospheric Environment, 31, 2179-2192.
Tuch, T., Brand, P., Wichmann, H. E., & Heyder, J. (1997). Variation of particle number and mass concentration in various size ranges of ambient aerosol in Eastern Germany. Atmospheric Environment, 31, 4193-4197.
Vanderstraeten, P., Lénelle, Y., Meurrens, A., Carati, D., Brenig, L., Delcloo, A., …, Zaady, E. (2008). Dust storm originate from Sahara covering Western Europe: A case study. Atmospheric Environment, 42, 5489-5493.
Vasconcelos, L. A., Macias, E. S., & White, W. H. (1994). Aerosol composition as a function of haze and humidity levels in the south western US. Atmospheric Environment, 28, 3679-3691.
Viana, M., Kuhlbusch, T. A. J., Querol, X., Alastuey, A., Harrison, R. M., Hopke, P. K., …, Hitzenberger, R. (2008). Source Apportionment of PM in Europe: A Review of Methods and Results. Journal of Aerosol Science, 39, 827-849.
Viana, M., Querol, X., Alastuey, A., Gangoiti, G., & Menéndez, M. (2003). PM levels in the Basque Country (northern Spain): analysis of 5-year data record and interpretation of seasonal variations. Atmospheric Environment, 37, 2879-2891.
Weijers, E. P., Khlystov, A. Y., Kos, G. P. A., & Erisman, J. W. (2004). Variability of PM concentrations along roads and motorways determined by a moving measurement unit. Atmospheric Environment, 38, 2993-3002.
Wilkinson, K., Lundkvist, J., Seisenbaeva, G., & Kessler, V. (2011). New tabletop SEM-EDS-based approach for cost-efficient monitoring of airborne particulate matter. Environmental Pollution, 159, 311-318.
Wilson, W. E., & Suh, H. H. (1997). Fine particles and coarse particles: concentrations relationship relevant to epidemiologic studies. Journal of Air and Waste Management Association, 47, 1238-1249.
Witting, A. E., Anderson, N., Khlystov, A. Y., Pandis, S. N., Davidson, C., & Robinson, A. L. (2004). Pittsburgh air quality study overview. Atmospheric Environment, 38, 3107-3125.
- There are currently no refbacks.
How to do online submission to another Journal?
If you have already registered in Journal A, then how can you submit another article to Journal B? It takes two steps to make it happen:
1. Register yourself in Journal B as an Author
Find the journal you want to submit to in CATEGORIES, click on “VIEW JOURNAL”, “Online Submissions”, “GO TO LOGIN” and “Edit My Profile”. Check “Author” on the “Edit Profile” page, then “Save”.
Go to “User Home”, and click on “Author” under the name of Journal B. You may start a New Submission by clicking on “CLICK HERE”.
We only use the following emails to deal with issues about paper acceptance, payment and submission of electronic versions of our journals to databases:
email@example.com; firstname.lastname@example.org; email@example.com
Copyright © Canadian Research & Development Centre of Sciences and Cultures (CRDCSC)
Address: 9375 Rue de Roissy Brossard, Québec, J4X 3A1, Canada
Telephone: 1-514-558 6138