The Porphyrins, Origin of Life in Biological Universe and Evolution/Regulation of the Human System

Ravikumar A. Kurup, Parameswara Achutha Kurup

Abstract


Objectives: Actinidic archaea have been related to the
pathogenesis of schizophrenia, malignancy, metabolic
syndrome x, autoimmune disease and neuronal
degeneration. An actinide dependent shadow biosphere of
archaea and viroids in the above mentioned disease states
is described. Actinidic archaea have a mevalonate pathway
and are cholesterol catabolizing. They can use cholesterol
as a carbon and energy source. Archaeal cholesterol
catabolism can generate porphyrins via the cholesterol
ring oxidase generated pyruvate and GABA shunt
pathway. Archaea can produce a secondary porphyria by
inducing the enzyme heme oxygenase resulting in heme
depletion and activation of the enzyme ALA synthase.
Porphyrins have been related to schizophrenia, metabolic
syndrome x, malignancy, systemic lupus erythematosis,
multiple sclerosis and Alzheimer’s diseases. The role
of archaeal porphyrins in regulation of cell functions
and neuroimmunoendocrine integration is discussed.
Porphyrins are prebiotic molecules which are involved in
abiogenesis and origin of life.
Methodology: Plasma from fasting heparinised
blood was used and the experimental protocol was as
follows (I) Plasma+phosphate buffered saline, (II) same
as I+cholesterol substrate, (III) same as II+rutile 0.1 mg/
ml, (IV) same as II+ciprofloxacine and doxycycline each
in a concentration of 1 mg/ml. The following estimations
were carried out: Cytochrome F420, free RNA, free DNA,
polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, hydrogen peroxide,
pyruvate, ammonia, glutamate, succinate, glycine, delta
aminolevulinic acid and digoxin. The study also involved
estimating the following parameters in the patient
population- Hexokinase, porphyrins, pyruvate, glutamate,
ammonia, succinic acid, serine, glycine, HMG CoA
reductase, cytochrome C, blood ATP and heme oxygenase.
Results: Plasma of control subjects showed increased
levels of the above mentioned parameters with after
incubation for 1 hour and addition of cholesterol
substrate resulted in still further significant increase in
these parameters. The plasma of patients showed similar
results but the extent of increase was more. The addition
of antibiotics to the control plasma caused a decrease
in all the parameters while addition of rutile increased
their levels. The addition of antibiotics and rutile to the
patient’s plasma produced the same changes but the
extent of change was more in patient’s sera as compared
to controls. There was upregulated archaeal porphyrin
synthesis in the patient population which was archaeal in
origin as indicated by actinide catalysis of the reactions.
The cholesterol oxidase pathway generated pyruvate
which entered the GABA shunt pathway. This resulted in
synthesis of succinate and glycine which are substrates
for ALA synthase. The study showed the patient’s blood
had increased heme oxygenase activity, increased serine,
glycine, succinic acid and porphyrins. The hexokinase
activity was high. The pyruvate, glutamate, ammonia,
GABA and succinic acid levels were elevated indicating
blockade of PDH activity, and operation of the GABA
shunt pathway. The cytoC levels were increased in the
serum indicating mitochondrial dysfunction suggested
by low blood ATP levels. This was indicative of the
Warburg’s phenotype. The HMG CoA reductase activity
was high indicating cholesterol synthesis.The RHCD
population had values similar to the patient population.
The LHCD population had opposite values.
Conclusion: An actinide dependent shadow biosphere
of archaea and viroids in the above mentioned disease
states is described. The archaeal porphyrins can contribute
to the pathgenesis of metabolic syndrome x, malignancy,
psychiatric disorders, autoimmune disease, AIDS, prion disease, neuronal degeneration and epileptogenesis.
Archaeal porphyrin synthesis is crucial in the pathogenesis
of these disorders. Porphyrins may serve as regulatory
molecules modulating immune, neural, endocrine,
metabolic and genetic systems. The porphyrins photooxidation
generated free radicals can produce immune
activation, produce cell death, activate cell proliferation,
produce insulin resistance and modulate conscious/
quantal perception. Porphyrins can regulate hemispheric
dominance. The archaeal porphyrins functions as key
regulatory molecules with mitochondrial benzodiazepine
receptors playing an important role. The role of porphyrins
in abiogenesis and origin of life as well as biological
universe is discussed.
Key words: Actinide; Archaea; Porphyrins; GABA
shunt; Peripheral Benzodiazepine receptor; Delta
aminolevulinic acid

Keywords


Actinide; Archaea; Porphyrins; GABA shunt; Peripheral Benzodiazepine receptor; Delta aminolevulinic acid

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3968%2Fj.ans.1715787020120502.1963

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