Endosymbiotic Actinidic Archaeal Cholesterol Catabolic Syndrome – Hypocholesterolemia and Human Diseases

Ravikumar Kurup A., Parameswara Achutha Kurup

Abstract


Aims and Objectives: Actinidic archaea have been implicated in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia, malignancy, metabolic syndrome x, autoimmune disease and neuronal degeneration. Actinide based primitive organism like archaea have a mevalonate pathway and cholesterol catabolism. Cholesterol catabolism by actinidic archaea can lead to cholesterol depletion and a hypocholesterolemic state contributing to the pathogenesis of these disorders. A endosymbiotic actinidic archaeal cholesterol catabolic syndrome is described. Methodology: Plasma from fasting heparinised blood was used and the experimental protocol was as follows (I) Plasma+phosphate buffered saline, (II) same as I+cholesterol substrate, (III) same as II+rutile 0.1 mg/ ml, (IV) same as II+ciprofloxacine and doxycycline each in a concentration of 1 mg/ml. The following estimations were carried out:- Cytochrome F420, cholesterol oxidase activity measured by hydrogen peroxide liberation, digoxin, bile acid, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, pyruvate, butyrate and propionate were estimated. Results: Plasma of control subjects showed increased levels of the above mentioned parameters with after incubation for 1 hour and addition of cholesterol substrate resulted in still further significant increase in these parameters. The plasma of patients showed similar results but the extent of increase was more. The addition of antibiotics to the control plasma caused a decrease in all the parameters while addition of rutile increased their levels. The addition of antibiotics and rutile to the patient’s plasma produced the same changes but the extent of change was more in patient’s sera as compared to controls. Conclusion: An actinide dependent shadow biosphere of archaea in the above mentioned disease states is described. The archaea can catabolize cholesterol to generate pyruvate, butyrate, propionate, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, bile acids, digoxin and hydrogen peroxide. Archaeal cholesterol catabolism leads to the generation of a hypocholesterolemic contributing to the pathogenesis of schizophrenia, malignancy, metabolic syndrome x, autoimmune disease and neuronal degeneration. This can be described as the endosymbiotic actinidic archaeal cholesterol catabolic syndrome.

Key words: Actinides; Archaea; Cholesterol Catabolism; Cholesterol aromatase; Cholesterol side chain oxidase; Cholesterol ring oxidase; Beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase


Keywords


Actinides; Archaea; Cholesterol Catabolism; Cholesterol aromatase; Cholesterol side chain oxidase; Cholesterol ring oxidase; Beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase



DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3968%2Fj.ans.1715787020120501.1115

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