Endosymbiotic Actinidic Archaeal Synthesis of Short Chain Fatty Acid Butyrate and Propionate from Cholesterol Regulates Cellular Function

Ravikumar Kurup A., Parameswara Achutha Kurup

Abstract


Aims and Objectives: Endomyocardial fibrosis along with the root wilt disease of coconut is endemic to Kerala with its radioactive actinide beach sands. Actinides like rutile as well as organisms like phytoplasmas and viroids have been implicated in the etiology of these diseases. Short chain fatty acids, butyrate and propionate has been related to the pathogenesis of schizophrenia, malignancy, metabolic syndrome x, autoimmune disease and neuronal degeneration. The possibility of short chain fatty acids synthesis by actinide based primitive organism like archaea with a mevalonate pathway and cholesterol catabolism was considered in these disease states. Methodology: Plasma from fasting heparinised blood was used and the experimental protocol was as follows (I) Plasma+phosphate buffered saline, (II) same as I+cholesterol substrate, (III) same as II+rutile 0.1 mg/ml, (IV) same as II+ciprofloxacine and doxycycline each in a concentration of 1 mg/ml. The following estimations were carried out:- Cytochrome F420, butyrate and propionate. Results: Plasma of control subjects showed increased levels of the above mentioned parameters with after incubation for 1 hour and addition of cholesterol substrate resulted in still further significant increase in these parameters. The plasma of patients showed similar results but the extent of increase was more. The addition of antibiotics to the control plasma caused a decrease in all the parameters while addition of rutile increased their levels. The addition of antibiotics and rutile to the patient’s plasma produced the same changes but the extent of change was more in patient’s sera as compared to controls. Conclusion: An actinide dependent shadow biosphere of archaea and viroids in the above mentioned disease states is described. The actinidic archaea by cholesterol side chain oxidation generates butyrate and propionate which can regulate immune, metabolic, neural and genomic function. The generation of short chain fatty acids from cholesterol by actinidic archaea may play a role in disease pathogenesis.

Key words: Archaea; Butyrate; Propionate; Short Chain fatty acid; Cholesterol


Keywords


Archaea; Butyrate; Propionate; Short Chain fatty acid; Cholesterol



DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3968%2Fj.ans.1715787020120501.1080

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