Endosymbiontic Actinidic Archaeal Synthesis of Digoxin from Cholesterol Regulates Cellular Function and Contributes to Disease Pathology
Aims and Objectives: Endomyocardial fibrosis along with the root wilt disease of coconut is endemic to Kerala with its radioactive actinide beach sands. Actinides like rutile, endogenous digoxin as well as organisms like phytoplasmas and viroids have been implicated in the etiology of these diseases. Endogenous digoxin has been related to the pathogenesis of schizophrenia, malignancy, metabolic syndrome x, autoimmune disease and neuronal degeneration. The possibility of endogenous digoxin synthesis by actinide based primitive organism like archaea with a mevalonate pathway and cholesterol catabolism was considered in these disease states. Methodology: Plasma from fasting heparinised blood was used and the experimental protocol was as follows (I) Plasma+phosphate buffered saline, (II) same as I+cholesterol substrate, (III) same as II+rutile 0.1 mg/ml, (IV) same as II+ciprofloxacine and doxycycline each in a concentration of 1 mg/ml. The following estimations were carried out:- Cytochrome F420 and digoxin. Results: Plasma of control subjects showed increased levels of the above mentioned parameters with after incubation for 1 hour and addition of cholesterol substrate resulted in still further significant increase in these parameters. The plasma of patients showed similar results but the extent of increase was more. The addition of antibiotics to the control plasma caused a decrease in all the parameters while addition of rutile increased their levels. The addition of antibiotics and rutile to the patient’s plasma produced the same changes but the extent of change was more in patient’s sera as compared to controls. Conclusion: Actinidic archaea can synthesize digoxin from cholesterol. Archaeal digoxin place an important role in neuroimmunoendocrine integration and can contribute to the above mentioned disease states.
Key words: Archaea; Actinide; Digoxin; Cholesterol; Disease
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