Stress, Task, and Relationship Orientations: Analysis Across Two Culturally Diverse Countries

Arif Sikander, Bahaudin G. Mujtaba, Talat Afza


Stress is a normal part of the workplace and it is perhaps heavily influenced by one’s level of task and relationship orientation. To explore the stress and leadership orientation of people in two different cultures, this study focused on the differences of 64 Australian and 155 Pakistani respondents. It appears that they have similar scores on the task orientation and stress perception, but Australians are more relationship-oriented. Overall, both groups reported a moderate level of stress with no statistically significant differences. In this paper, literature on the two cultures is presented along with practical suggestions and implications for future studies regarding leadership and stress management.

Key words: Relationships; Tasks; Culture; Stress; Australia; Pakistan


Relationships; Tasks; Culture; Stress; Australia; Pakistan

Full Text:




  • There are currently no refbacks.


If you have already registered in Journal A and plan to submit article(s) to Journal B, please click the CATEGORIES, or JOURNALS A-Z on the right side of the "HOME".

We only use three mailboxes as follows to deal with issues about paper acceptance, payment and submission of electronic versions of our journals to databases:;;

Copyright © 2010 Canadian Research & Development Centre of Sciences and Cultures
Address: 730, 77e AV, Laval, Quebec, H7V 4A8, Canada

Telephone: 1-514-558 6138