An Investigative Study on the Chemical, Morphological and Mineralogical Alterations of Dry Disposed Fly Ash During Sequential Chemical Extraction

S. A. AkinyemiA., A. Akinlua, W. M. Gitari, S. M. Nyale, R. O. Akinyeye, L. F. Petrik


The hazardous elements associated with various physicochemical forms in coal fly ash are of environmental concern due to their leaching potential and subsequent contamination of surface and groundwater in the vicinity of the ash dump. Selective sequential extraction was performed on dry disposed fly ash samples from a coal-fired power station in Mpumalanga province, South Africa. The alteration of the chemical, morphological and mineralogical species of weathered fly ash during the selective sequential extraction was investigated using X-ray fluorescence (XRF), Nano-scan electron microscopy (NANOSEM) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD). Insoluble residue from the water-soluble fraction is composed of amorphous alumino-silicate. The residues from exchangeable carbonate and Fe and Mn fractions consisted mostly of amorphous alumino-silicate spheres with a lesser quantity of iron-rich spheres. The iron-rich spheres are surrounded by amorphous alumino-silicate spheres.  The leaching behavior of trace metals (such as Ce, Y, Nb, Rb, U, and Tl) in weathered dry disposed fly ash was considered to have a dependency relationship with the components of SiO2, CaO, MgO, P2O5, and amount of unburned carbon. The decrease in the quantities of calcite with successive extraction could be considered as a marker of progress of sequential extraction technique. At the same time, the increase in the quantities of quartz could be also considered as an indicator of progress of the sequential extraction scheme. Trace elements bound to exchangeable or carbonate fraction during sequential chemical extraction were found associated with calcite. The elemental concentrations, as determined by electron dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS), were consistent with XRF and XRD data. Therefore, the chemical extractant used in this study proved efficient for extraction of inorganic metals associated with various physicochemical forms in weathered fly ash.

Key words: Coal fly ash; Selective sequential extraction; Major components; Trace elements; Morphology; Mineralogical composition


Coal fly ash; Selective sequential extraction; Major components; Trace elements; Morphology; Mineralogical composition

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