The Magnitude of Cultural Factors That Affect School Enrolment and Retention in Afghanistan: An Analysis Through Hofstede’s Cultural Model
This study aims to measure the magnitude of the cultural factors that affect enrolment and retention in both primary and secondary education levels in Afghanistan and advocate cultural transformation or modification in Afghanistan to enhance enrolment and retention in school. The study uses quantitative and particularly qualitative data regarding cultural constraints to school enrolment and retention in Afghanistan from secondary sources like Afghan government publications, private publications, publications from non-government organizations, journal articles, newspaper articles, newsletter articles, web documents, dissertations, published interviews, database articles, and books. It employs Hofstede’s cultural dimensions model to analyze the cultural factors. However, the study found out that on the scale of Geert Hofstede’s cultural dimensions model, Afghan culture was characterized by high degree of power distance, masculinity, i.e., conventional gender role focus, high level of uncertainty avoidance, and long term orientation that were deterrents to education in Afghanistan. Finally, it recommends a culture with low level of power distance, femininity focus, low degree of uncertainty avoidance, and long term orientation to increase school enrolments and retention in Afghanistan.
Convent school corporal punishment? (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.ask.com/question/convent-school-corporal-punishment
Gender Equality and education (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.vsointernational.org/Images/VSO%20gender%20equality%20and%20education%20paper_tcm76-32443.pdf
Hofstede, G., & Hofstede, G. J. (2005). Cultures and organizations: Software of the mind. Intercultural cooperation and its importance for survival (1st ed.). New York: McGraw Hill.
Hofstede, G., Hofstede, G. J., & Minkov, M. (2010).Cultures and organizations: Software of the mind (3rd ed.) New York: McGraw-Hill.
United Nations Girls’ Education Initiative. (n.d). Afghanistan: Background. Retrieved from http://www.ungei.org/infobycountry/afghanistan.html
Why aren’t girls in schools? (n.d.). Retrieved from. http://www right-to-education.org/node/192
Zoy, D. N. (2009, April). Fair access of children to education in Afghanistan. Afghan Independent Human Rights Commission (AIHRC). Retrieved from http://www.aihrc.org.af/media/files/Research%20Reports/english/Fair%20Access%20of%20Children%20to%20Education%20in%20Afghanistan.pdf
United Nations Children’s Fund. (2009, November). The state of the world’s children special edition: Celebrating 20 years of the convention on the rights of the child.
The World Bank. (2010, July). Poverty status in Afghanistan. Retrieved from http://siteresources.worldbank.org/AFGHANISTANEXTN/Resources/305984-1264608805475/6739619-1286210806756/AFPovertyReport.pdf
Doerter, A. (2010, September 17). Afghanistan’s education gender gap. World poverty and human rights online. Retrieved from http://wphr.org/blog/2010/09/17/afghanistans-education-gender-gap/
Oxfam international. (2011, February 24). High stakes: Girls’ education in Afghanistan. Retrieved from http://www.oxfam.org/sites/www.oxfam.org/files/afghanistan-girls-education-022411.pdf
Akbar, N. (2011, July 28). Education remains only for privileged Afghans: Despite widening opportunities, schooling is still the preserve of the few. Al jazeera [Editorial]. Retrieved from http://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/opinion/profile/2011726102930470716.html
Children are escaping schools (2011, July 28). The Daily Outlook Afghanistan. [Editorial]. Retrieved from http://outlookafghanistan.net/view.php?post_id=1376
CIA world fact book (2012, January 01). Population below poverty line. Retrieved from https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2046.html
United Nations Children’s Fund. (2012, January). Primary school survival rate (including data on poorest and richest 20%). Retrieved from http://www.childinfo.org/education_primarysurvivalsurvey.php
Save the children Afghanistan. (2012, March 05). Children’s situation in Afghanistan. Retrieved from http://resourcecentre.savethechildren.se/start/countries/afghanistan
Murray, T. (2012, April 23). The oppressed women of Afghanistan: Fact, fiction, or distortion. Middle East Institute. Retrieved from http://www.mei.edu/content/oppressed-women-afghanistan-fact-fiction-or-distortion
Uppsala University. (2013, February 20). Education in Afghanistan: Why the country has a lack of gender parity in school & how the situation could be improved.
Child labor, a menace to the future. (2013, July 01). The Daily Outlook Afghanistan [Editorial]. Retrieved from http://outlookafghanistan.net/editorialdetail.php?post_id=7760
FHI360 (2013, July 12). Afghanistan national education profile - A low income country in South Asia. Retrieved from http://www.epdc.org/sites/default/files/documents/Afghanistan_NEP_2013.pdf
- There are currently no refbacks.
How to do online submission to another Journal?
If you have already registered in Journal A, then how can you submit another article to Journal B? It takes two steps to make it happen:
1. Register yourself in Journal B as an Author
Find the journal you want to submit to in CATEGORIES, click on “VIEW JOURNAL”, “Online Submissions”, “GO TO LOGIN” and “Edit My Profile”. Check “Author” on the “Edit Profile” page, then “Save”.
Go to “User Home”, and click on “Author” under the name of Journal B. You may start a New Submission by clicking on “CLICK HERE”.
We only use three mailboxes as follows to deal with issues about paper acceptance, payment and submission of electronic versions of our journals to databases: firstname.lastname@example.org; email@example.com; firstname.lastname@example.org
Copyright © Canadian Academy of Oriental and Occidental Culture
Address: 730, 77e AV, Laval, Quebec, H7V 4A8, Canada
Telephone: 1-514-558 6138