The Role of Police Risk Assessments in Judicial Decisions Regarding Domestic Violence Offenses in Israel

Efrat Shoham

Abstract


Increasing awareness to the issue of domestic violence offenses in Israeli society has led to changes in legislation and enforcement, with an additional degree of severity attributed to domestic violence. These changes have also led the Israel Police to develop an actuarial risk assessment tool to improve the validity of decision-making processes regarding domestic violence. The purpose of this tool was to empower police investigators to assess information from domestic violence complaints, and to derive the best recommended action from that information. Thus, the tool results in uniformity of attitude between various professionals in the law-enforcement system towards domestic violence. To test whether this tool indeed increases uniformity of attitude between various law-enforcement professionals, towards the risk level of the assaulting partner, this study examined all domestic violence offense cases opened in a large city in the south of Israel and analyzed a small sample of protocols from domestic violence investigations that ended with conviction. The study data show that both in requests for remand extension and in penalty judgment decisions, the legal system tends to ignore the risk assessment score provided by the police tool. These data indicate that Israeli legal discourse tends to overlook police risk assessments of domestic violence offenders, which in theory could increase the probability of “false negative” errors in predicting the risk level of an offender. In turn, this may result in additional assaults by violent partners against their victims.


Keywords


Domestic Violence; Risk assessment; Court decision

Full Text:

PDF

References


Agmon-Gonen M., & First, A. (2007). Is the car better?! Punishment in domestic violence offenses. In D. Barak-Erez, S. Yanisky-Ravid, Y. Bitton & D. Pugach (Eds.), Reviewing Law, Gender and Feminism (545-582). Tel Aviv: The Uno Academic Campus/ Nevo Publishing Ltd.(Hebrew)

Almagor-Lotan, O. (2011). Violence against women – Data summary for 2011. Jerusalem, the Knesset Information and Research Center. (Hebrew)

Bar-Eli M., Bar-Mocha, M., & Frenkel, A. (2004). The problem with home restriction in cases of suspected domestic violence: risk-taking perspective. Police and Society, 8, 37-53. (Hebrew). 

Andreus, A. D., Bonta, J., & Womith, S. (2006).The recent past and near future of risk assessment. Crime & Delinquency, 52, 7-27.

Archer, J., & Browne, K. (1989). Concepts and approaches to the study of aggression. In J. Archer & K. Browen (Eds.), Aggression: Naturalistic Approaches (pp.3-24). London and New York. 

Buzawa, E. S., & Buzawa, C. G. (1993). The impact of arrest on domestic violence. American Behavioral Scientist, 36(5), 558-574.

Campbell, A. (1993). Men, women and aggression. London:  Basic Books.

Campbell, J., Jones, A., Dienemann, J., Kub J., Schollenberger, J., & O’Campo, P. (2003), Intimate partner violence and physical health consequences. Archive of Internal Medicine, 162, 1157-1163.

Campbell, J. C. (2003). Assessing risk factors for intimate partner homicide. NIJ Jornal, 250, 14-19.

Cohen, D. (2010) Risk assessment as part of the handling of adult sex offenders. In M. Shchory, & S. Ben-David (Eds), handling of sexual offenders in Israel – Challenges in recognition, characterization and therapeutic response. Jerusalem: Carmel and Keshet Press. (Hebrew)

Dancig-Rosenberg, H., & Pugach, D. (2010). When love hurts: the dilemma of considering the request of women living with violence to reduce the punishment of their aggressor. Law Studies, 26(b), 589-652.

DeKeseredy, W. S., & Schwartz, M. D. (2011). Theoretical and definitional issues in violence against women. In C.M.  Renzetti, J. L. Edleson, & R.Kk. Bergen (Eds). Sourcebook on violence against women (3-20). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Douglas, K. S., & Skeem, J. I. (2005). Violence risk assessment getting specific about being dynamic. Psychology, Public policy and Low, 11(3), 347-383.

Eisenstadt, M. (2007). Is the term “Dangerousness” dangerous? Social Safety, 75, 65-88.

Gal, N. (2003). Violence towards women: normative or deviant? Tel Aviv: Hadekel Press Ltd.. (Hebrew) 

Gilboa, M. (2008).  X files or well aimed arrows: comments regarding the police representative investigation during arbitrary arrest procedure. The Defense Attorney, 134, 4-8. (Hebrew)

Goldstein, S. (2008). Reinforcing the position and role of the victim in both civic and criminal proceedings. In I. Kim, Y. Bar Zohar, & L. Eden, (Eds.), The Victims of Law Enforcement, Sex and Society (pp.170-176). Tel Aviv: Massada. (Hebrew)

Hadad, L. (2012). The Israeli court’s attitude towards violence against women: a quantitative study of Magistrates’ court penalty judgments. Seminary project, Ashkelon: the Criminology Department at the Ashkelon Academic College. (Hebrew)

Hanson, R. Karl, & Morton-Bourgon (2009).The accuracy of recidivism risk assessments for sexual offenders: A meta-analysis of 118 prediction studies. Psychological Assessment, 21(1), 1-21.

Harcourt, B. E. (2006). From the asylum to the prison: Rethinking the incarceration revolution. Texas Law Review, 84, 1751-1786.

Harcourt, B. E. (2007). Against prediction: Profiling, policing, and punishing in an actuarial age. The University of Chicago Press.

Karon A. (2007). Tools for risk evaluation of violent behavior towards another and suicidal behavior – literature review. Retrieved April 10 2011, from http://brookdaleheb.jdc.org.il.

Kropp, P. R., Hart, S. D., Webster, C. D., & Eaves, D. (1995). Manual for spousal assault risk assessment guide (2nd ed.). British Columbia: The British Columbia Institute on Family Violence.

Lernau, H. (2008) Recipe for inefficient legislation: The case of the Detention Act. Law Studies, 24(a). Retrieved May 8 2011, from the Public Attorney’s website on http://www.justice.gov.il

Petersilia, J. (2003). When prisoners come home: Parole and prisoner reentry. Oxford University Press.

One in 100: Behind Bars in America. (2008). Pew Center on the States.

Sandberg, H. (2000). Offense severity in arrest rationale – Is it really the end? Law, 31, 323.

Sapir, Y. (2008). Against prevention? A response to Harcourt’s against prediction on actuarial and clinical predictions and the faults of incapacitation. Law & Social Inquiry, 33, 253-264. (Hebrew)

Sergovitz, M. (2008). Risk assessment: Theoretical background and criticism. The Defense Attorney, March, 132-138. .(Hebrew)

Shoham, E. (2012). To glance behind the walls: Domestic violence in closed communities. Be’er Sheva: Ben-Gurion University in the Negev Publishing. (Hebrew)

Shoham, E., & Abulafiya, Y. (2010). Judicial decisions in domestic violence offenses at Magistrates’ courts. Trends, 47(a), 103-129. (Hebrew) 

Shoham, E. (2010). The dark side of the sun. Be’er Sheva: Ben-Gurion University Press.

Shoham, E., & Regev, Y. (2008). The victim’s impact statement in Israeli criminal proceedings. In E. Shoham (Ed.), Supervision of sex offenders in Israel – Treatment or therapy? Tel Aviv, Perlstein-Ginosar Law Books Publishing. .(Hebrew)

Smedslund, G., Dalsbø, T. K., Steiro, A. K., Winsvold, A., & Clench-Aas, J. (2007). Cognitive behavioral therapy for men who physically abuse their female partner. Campbell Collaboration Systematic Review. Retrieved September 20, 2007, from http://www.campbellcollaboration.org/doc-pdf/070716_CBT_violence_final.pdf

Tayagi, S. (1998, June). Risk assessment of male batterers. Education Wife Assault Newsletter, 9

The Israeli Women’s Network. Retrieved June 1 2011. http://www.iwn.org.il

Walker, L. E. A. (1993).The battered women syndrome is a psychological consequence of abuse. In R. J. Galles, & D. R. Loseke (Eds.), Current controversies on family violence (pp.133-153). London: Sage Publication.

Weinstein, A., Dayan, K., Morag, M., Ziv N., Agamy Z., & Mishkin, D. (2004). Domestic violence: A computerized tool for risk assessment. Jerusalem: Israeli police. (Hebrew)

Weiss, Y. (2008). Structured tools for risk assessment of criminals and sex offenders. In E. Shoham (Ed.), Supervision of sex offenders in Israel – Treatment or therapy? (pp. 47-58). Ben Gurion University Press. (Hebrew) 

Westbrook, L. (2007). Digital information support for domestic violence victims. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 58(3), 420-432.

Yassour-Borochowitz, D., & Lavi-Efrat, Y. (2007) Orders of protections of buttered women in Israel. Society and Wellfare, 27, 237-254. (Hebrew) 

Zakay, D., Fleisig, D. (2010). Heuristic reasoning and its influence of judicial decisions. Law and Business, 12, 91-116.

Zlotchover, N. (2004). Legislation trends in the field of domestic violence. Police and Society, 8, 5-37. (Hebrew)




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3968%2F3808

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Reminder

How to do online submission to another Journal?

If you have already registered in Journal A, then how can you submit another article to Journal B? It takes two steps to make it happen:

1. Register yourself in Journal B as an Author

Find the journal you want to submit to in CATEGORIES, click on “VIEW JOURNAL”, “Online Submissions”, “GO TO LOGIN” and “Edit My Profile”. Check “Author” on the “Edit Profile” page, then “Save”.

2. Submission

Go to “User Home”, and click on “Author” under the name of Journal B. You may start a New Submission by clicking on “CLICK HERE”.



We only use three mailboxes as follows to deal with issues about paper acceptance, payment and submission of electronic versions of our journals to databases: caooc@hotmail.com; css@cscanada.net; css@cscanada.org

Copyright © Canadian Academy of Oriental and Occidental Culture

Address: 730, 77e AV, Laval, Quebec, H7V 4A8, Canada

Telephone: 1-514-558 6138

Http://www.cscanada.net Http://www.cscanada.org

E-mail:css@cscanada.net, css@cscanada.org