Exploring the Linkages Among Economic Growth, Openness, Income Inequality, Education and Health in Pakistan

Nabeela Asghar, Asma Awan, Hafeez ur Rehman

Abstract


The present study is an attempt to investigate empirical linkages among economic growth, openness, income inequality, education and health in Pakistan during 1974-2009 by using annual time series data. Phillips-Perron (PP) unit root test is utilized to check stationarity of the variables. Long-run relationship is confirmed through Johansen and Juselius cointegration test. VECM is proposed to check short-run and long-run dynamics. Toda-Yamamoto causality test is utilized for observing the causality. Diagnostic tests are utilized to confirm the validity of the model. The results support strong positive impact of openness of trade, education and health on economic growth in the long-run whereas income inequality is negatively associated with economic growth. The study finds significant five uni-directional causalities and two bi-directional causalities among variables. For achieving higher economic growth in Pakistan attention must be directed towards decisive economic policies related to liberalizing trade, provision of education and health facilities and to reduce income inequality.

JEL Classification: F43, F13, I19, I29

Key words: Economic Growth; Openness; Income Inequality; Education; Health


Keywords


Economic Growth; Openness; Income Inequality; Education; Health



DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3968/j.css.1923669720110706.094

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.



Share us to:   


Reminder

  • How to do online submission to another Journal?
  • If you have already registered in Journal A, then how can you submit another article to Journal B? It takes two steps to make it happen:

1. Register yourself in Journal B as an Author

  • Find the journal you want to submit to in CATEGORIES, click on “VIEW JOURNAL”, “Online Submissions”, “GO TO LOGIN” and “Edit My Profile”. Check “Author” on the “Edit Profile” page, then “Save”.

2. Submission

  • Go to “User Home”, and click on “Author” under the name of Journal B. You may start a New Submission by clicking on “CLICK HERE”.
  • We only use three mailboxes as follows to deal with issues about paper acceptance, payment and submission of electronic versions of our journals to databases: caooc@hotmail.com; css@cscanada.net; css@cscanada.org

 Articles published in Canadian Social Science are licensed under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 (CC-BY).

 CANADIAN SOCIAL SCIENCE Editorial Office 

Address: 9375 Rue de Roissy Brossard, Québec, J4X 3A1, Canada 
Telephone: 1-514-558 6138 
Website: Http://www.cscanada.net Http://www.cscanada.org 
E-mailcss@cscanada.net, css@cscanada.org

Copyright © Canadian Academy of Oriental and Occidental Culture