Akhond Khorasani’s Viewpoints towards Modern Concepts

Alireza Soroush, Sarvinder Kaur Sandhu, Hamed Alaei

Abstract


Abstract: In 1906, at the dawn of the twentieth century, Akhond Khorasani assumed the leadership of the Iranian constitutional revolution. He was a prominent figure in Iranian history regarding whom this paper sets out to unveil his mentality vis-a-vis the modern concepts of freedom, constitutionalism, justice and parliament. Before the occurrence of the constitutional revolution, such concepts were not present in Iran’s political – social culture. These were modern concepts which entered Iran coming from the west and were subsequently utilized during the constitutional revolution. As the revolution’s leader, Akhond Khorasani made use of these words in his political literature. Discovering the manner in which he integrated and used these concepts in his works is the objective of this article. In order to reach this objective, all the primary sources that included the Akhond’s announcements, letters, telegraphs, answers to questions and fatwas through which he specified his political mentality are made use of in this quantitative research where the method of evident content analysis is implemented for the purpose of data analysis. Iran is a society intertwined to a high degree with religion and thus the clergy are highly influential on the people. The understanding and comprehension of traditional clergies’ mentality in relation to modern concepts has the potential to shed light on the issue of whether this influence can be continued. Key words: Constitutional revolution; Freedom; Justice; Parliament; Political culture; Clergies Résumé: En 1906, à l'aube du XXe siècle, Akhond Khorasani a assumé le leadership de la révolution constitutionnelle iranienne. Il est une figure marquante dans l'histoire iranienne, et cet article se propose de dévoiler sa mentalité vis-à-vis des concepts modernes de liberté, de constitutionnalisme , de justice et de parlement. Avant l'apparition de la révolution constitutionnelle, ce genre de concepts n'exsitaient pas dans la culture politique et sociales de l'Iran. Ce sont des concepts modernes qui sont entrés en Iran en provenance de l'ouest et ont ensuite été utilisées au cours de la révolution constitutionnelle. En tant que le leader de la révolution, Akhond Khorasani fait l’usage de ces mots dans son discours politique. L’objectif de cet article est de découverir la manière dont il a intégré et utilisé ces concepts dans ses œuvres. Afin d'atteindre cet objectif, toutes les sources primaires, y compris les annonces de Akhond, ses lettres, ses télégraphes, ses réponses aux questions et les fatwas dans lesquels il a précisé sa mentalité politique, ont été utilisés dans cette recherche quantitative lorsque la méthode d'analyse de contenu évident est mis en œuvre pour l'analyse des données. L'Iran est une société liée étroitement à la religion et donc les clergés sont très influents sur le peuple. La compréhension de la mentalité des clergés traditionnels par rapport à des concepts modernes a le potentiel d’éclairer la question de savoir si cette influence peut être poursuivie. Mots clés: Révolution constitutionnelle; Liberté; Justice; Parlement; Culture politique; Clergés

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3968%2Fj.css.1923669720110702.018

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