Compliment: A Cross-Cultural Study of Speech Act Awareness: A Pilot Project Report

Xiamei PENG, Yushan ZHAO

Abstract


Based on the findings and researches on compliments proposed by Brown and Levinson, Leech and Holmes, the present pilot project designs questionnaire for three subject groups: Chinese native speakers, English native speakers, and Chinese interlanguage speakers, to investigate compliments from a cross-cultural point of view and compare the different speech act awareness. The findings include three points: (a) The three groups have different awareness of compliments; (b) Power and social distance play different roles in the three groups’ communication; (c) Gender is also an important variable in offering compliment. Furthermore, the project also provokes some thinking on English Language Teaching (ELT).

Keywords


Compliment; Cross-Cultural; Speech act awareness; English Language Teaching (ELT)

Full Text:

PDF

References


Barbosa, M. L. F. F. (1996). Estrategias de polidez em respostas a elogios. [Strategies of politeness in responses to compliments]. Trabalhos em Linguistica Aplicada, 28, 5-17.

Barnlund, D. C., & Akari, S. (1985). Intercultural encounters: the management of compliments by Japanese and Americans. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 16(1), 9-26.

Brezolin, A. (1995). Elogiose repostas a elogios: uma taxionomia descritiva [Compliments in response to compliments: for descriptive taxonomy]. Uniletras, 17, 111-130.

Brown, p., & Levinson S. C. (1987). Politeness: some universals in language use. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.

Chen, R. (1993). Responding to compliments A contrastive study of politeness strategies between American English and Chinese speakers. Journal of Pragmatics, 20(1), 49-75.

Chick, J. K. (1996). English in interpersonal interaction in South Africa. In V. De Klerk (Ed.), Focus on South Africa (pp.269-283). Amsterdam, Netherlands: John Benjamins Publishing Company.

Cordella, M., Large, H., & Pardo, V. (1995). Complimenting behavior in Australian English and Spanish speech. Multilingual, 14(3), 235-252.

Fong, M. (1998). Chinese immigrant’s perceptions of semantic dimensions of direct/indirect communication in intercultural compliment interactions with North Americans. Howard Journal of Communications, 9, 245-262.

Golato, A. (2002). German compliment responses. Journal of Pragmatics, 34(5), 547-571.

Han, C. (1992). A comparative study of compliment responses: Korean females in Korean interactions and in English interactions. Working Papers in Educational Linguistics, 8, 17-31.

Henderson, A. (1996). Compliments, compliment responses, and politeness in an African-American community. In J. Arnold, R. Blake, B. Davidson, S. Schwenter, & J. Solomon (Eds.). Sociolinguistic Variation: Data, Theory, and Analysis: Selected Papers from NWAV at Stanford (pp.195-208). Stanford, CA: Center for Study of Language & Information.

Herbert, R. K. (1986). Say “Thank you”–or something. American Speech, 61(1), 76-88.

Herbert, R. K. (1989). The ethnography of English compliments and compliment responses: a contrastive sketch. In W. Oleksy (Ed.). Contrastive Pragmatics (pp.3-35). Amsterdam, Netherlands: John Benjamins.

Herbert, R. K. (1990). Sex-based differences in compliment behavior. Language in Society, 19(02), 201-224.

Herbert, R. K. (1991). The sociology of compliment work: an ethnocontrastive study of Polish and English compliments. Multilingua, 10(4), 381-402.

Herbert, R. K., & Stephen, S. H. (1989). Compliment-rejection versus compliment-avoidance: listener-base versus speaker-based pragmatic strategies. Language and Communication, 9, 35-47.

Holmes, J. (1986). Compliments and compliment responses in New Zealand English. Anthropological Linguistics, 28(4), 485-508.

Holmes, J. (1988). Paying compliments: a sex-preferential politeness strategy. Journal of Pragmatics, 12(4), 445-465.

Holmes, J. (1995). Women, men and politeness. London, England: Longman.

Holmes, J. (1998). Complimenting–a positive politeness strategy. In J. Coates (Ed.), Language and Gender: A Reader (pp.100-120). Oxford, England: Blackwell Publisher Ltd.

Holmes, J., & Brown, D. F. (1987). Teachers and students learning about compliments. TESOL Quarterly, 21(3), 523-546.

Jaworski, A. (1995). “This is not an empty compliment!” Polish compliments and the expression of solidarity. International Journal of Applied Linguistics, 5(1), 63-94.

Kerbrat-Orecchioni, C. (1987). La desciption des échanges en analyse conversationnelle: l’exemple du compliment [The description of the analysis of conversational exchange : examples of compliments]. DRLAV: Revue de linguistique, 1-53.

Knapp, M. L., Hopper, R., & Bell, R. A. (1984) Compliments: a descriptive taxonomy. Journal of Communication, 34(4), 12-31.

Leech, G. N. (1983). Principle of pragmatics. London, England: Longman.

Lewandowska-Tomaszczyk, B. (1989). Praising and complimenting. In W. Oleksy (Ed.), Contrastive Pragmatics (pp.73-100). Amsterdam, Netherlands: John Benjamins.

Liu, D. L. (1995). Sociocultural transfer and its effect on second language speaker’s communication. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 19(2), 253-265.

Manes, J. (1983). Compliments: a mirror of cultural values. In N. Wolfson & E. Judd (Eds.). Sociolinguistics and Language Acquisition (pp.96-102). New York, NY: Newbury House Publishers.

Moore, Z. (1996). Teaching culture: a study of piropos. Hispania, 79, 113-120.

Nelson, G. L., Al-Batal, M., & Echols, E. (1996). Arabic and English compliment responses: potential for pragmatic failure. Applied Linguistics, 17(4), 411-432.

Nelson, G. L., Waguida, E. B., & Al-Batal, M. (1993). Egyptian and American compliments: a cross-cultural study. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 17(3), 293-313.

Pomerantz, A. (1978). Compliment responses. Notes on the co-operation of multiple constraints. In J. Schenkein (Ed.). Studies in the Organization of Conversational Interaction (pp.79-112). Waltham, MA: Academic Press.

Saito, H. & Beecken, M. (1997). An approach to instruction of pragmatic aspects: implications of pragmatic transfer by American learners of Japanese. Modern Language Journal, 81(3), 363-377.

Trudgill, p.(1978). Sociolinguistics: An Intruduction to Language and Society. Middlesex, England: Penguin.

Valdés, G., & Pino, C. (1981). Muy a tus ordenes: compliment responses among Mexican-American bilinguals [All at your command: compliment responses among Mexican-American bilinguals]. Language in Society, 10, 53-72.

Wieland, M. (1995). Complimenting behavior in French/American cross-cultural dinner conversations. The French Review, 68, 796-812.

Wolfson, N. (1981a). Compliments in cross-cultural perspective. TESOL Quarterly, 15(2), 117-124.

Wolfson, N. (1981b). Invitations, compliments and the competence of the native speaker. International Journal of Psycholinguistics, 8, 7-22.

Wolfson, N. (1983). An empirically based analysis of complimenting in American English. In N. Wolfson & E. Judd (Eds.) Sociolinguistics and Language Acquisition (pp.82-95). New York, NY: Newbury House Publishers.

Wolfson, N., & Manes, J. (1980). The compliment as a social strategy. Papers in Linguistics, 13, 391-410.

Yang, Su. Y. (1987). A comparison between Chinese and American cultures in forms of address, greetings and farewells, and compliments. Cross-Currents, 13, 13-28.

Ylänne-McEwen, V. (1993). Complimenting behavior: a cross-cultural investigation. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 14, 499-508.

 




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3968%2F4745

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Reminder

If you have already registered in Journal A and plan to submit article(s) to Journal B, please click the CATEGORIES, or JOURNALS A-Z on the right side of the "HOME".


We only use three mailboxes as follows to deal with issues about paper acceptance, payment and submission of electronic versions of our journals to databases: caooc@hotmail.com; css@cscanada.net; css@cscanada.org

Copyright © Canadian Academy of Oriental and Occidental Culture

Address: 730, 77e AV, Laval, Quebec, H7V 4A8, Canada

Telephone: 1-514-558 6138

Http://www.cscanada.net Http://www.cscanada.org

E-mail:css@cscanada.net, css@cscanada.org