Electoral Violence and the Survival of Democracy in Nigeria’sFourth Republic: A Historical Perspective
The historical trajectory of electoral process in the post colonial Nigerian is characterised by violence. In fact, recent manifestations of electoral violence, most importantly since the birth of the Fourth Republic in 1999 have assumed an unprecedented magnitude and changing form, resulting in instability in democratic consolidation as well as the loss and displacement of many innocent lives. The paper historicizes electoral violence and its implications on the survival of democracy in the Nigeria with major emphasis on the Fourth Republic. It argues that the high incidence of electoral violence (pre and post) in the Fourth Republic in particular is closely associated with neo-patrimonial character of the Nigerian state, the nature and kind of party politics being played, the weak institutionalisation of democratic architectures and inefficient electoral management body among others. It posits that these were among the factors that led to the fall or collapse of the First and Second Republics. The paper therefore submits that the survival of democracy in the Fourth Republic involves adherence to the ideals and principles of electoral process as practised in ideal democratic societies.
Abimbola, J. O., & Adesote, S. A.(2012). Political parties and the quest for good governance in Nigeria. In V.O. Edo & E. F. K. Salami (Eds.). Issues and trends in Nigeria’s development (Chapter 18, pp.248-265). A Festschrift for Rev.Fr. Abiodun, F. Akinseye. Ibadan: John Asher Publishers.
Adeyemo, A. (May 29,2009). Paris, gains of a decade of democracy. This Day Newspaper. p.25.
Afrobarometer. (May 2006). Citizens and the state in Africa: New results from Afrobarometer, Round 3 (Working Paper No. 61). p.12.
Agbaje, A., & Adejumobi, S. (2006). Do votes count? The travails of electoral politics in Nigeria. Africa Development, XXXI(3), 25-44.
Akinwumi, O. (2004). Crises and conflicts in Nigeria: A political history since 1960. Münster, Lit Verlag.
Albert, I. O. (2007). Reconceptualising electoral violence in Nigeria. In I. O. Albert, D. Marco & V. Adetula (Eds.). Perspectives on the 2003 elections in Nigeria. Abuja, IDASA and Sterling- Holding Publishers.
Amnesty International Report. (2008).
Aniekwe, C. C., & Kushie, J. (2011). Electoral violence situational analysis: Identifying hot-spots in the 2011 general elections in Nigeria (A Report Submitted to National Association for Peaceful Elections in Nigeria (NAPEN)), Abuja, Nigeria.
Anifowose, R. (1972). Violence and politics in Nigeria: the Tiv and Yoruba Experience (pp. 100-113 & 165). Enugu: Nok publishers (Nig) Ltd.
Animashaun, M. A. (2008). The 2007 elections and the imperative of electoral reform in Nigeria. Covenant Journal of Business and Social Sciences, 1 and 2, 123-141.
Babarinsa, D. (2002). The house of war. Lagos: Tell Communication Publishers.Cambridge Encyclopaedia. (1990).
Chaturvedi, A. (2005). Rigging elections with violence. Public Choice, 125(1), 189-202.
Chiroro. B. (2005). Analysis of the 2005 Zimbabwe senate elections. 38 EISA Occasional Paper 1.
Copyright. (2012). Gazette of Government of Akwa Ibom State
Dode, O. R. (2010). Political parties and the prospects of democratic consolidation in Nigeria: 1999-2006. African Journal of Political Science and International Relations, 4(5), pp. 188-194. Retrieved from http://www.academicjournals.org/ajpsir
Falola. T., Mahadi. A., Uhomoibhi, M., & Anyanwu, U. (1991). History of Nigeria 3: Nigeria in the 20th century (pp.55-73). Ibadan: Longman Nigeria Plc.
Fischer, J. (2002). Electoral conflict and violence IFES. Washington, D.C.
Gilula. & Daniels. (1969) cited in Wikipedia (2010).
Human Rights Watch.(2004). Nigeria’s 2003 elections: The unacknowledged violence. New York.
Human Rights Watch. (2007) Election or “Selection”? Human rights abuse and threats to free and fair elections in Nigeria. New York.
IFES-NIGERIA. (2007). EVER Report 6, IFES-Nigeria, Abuja.
Igbuzor, O. (2010). Electoral violence in Nigeria. Asaba, Action Aid Nigeria.
Ige, B. (1995). People, political and politician of Nigeria, 1940-1979 (pp.48-58). Ibadan: Heinemann Educational Books (Nig) Plc.
International Foundation for Election Systems. (December 11, 2011). Electoral violence education and resolution, IFES. Retrieved from http://ifes.org/Content/Projects/Applied-Research-Center/Cross-Cutting/Election-Violence-Education-and-Resolution.aspx
Kurfi, A. (2005). Nigerian general elections, 1951-2003: My role and reminiscences. Ibadan: Spectrum Books.
Kolawole, D. (2007). Democracy, elections, majoritanianism and the Nigerian factor. The Nation, 3, 15.
Khadiagala, G. (2009). Forty days and nights of peace making in Kenya. Journal of African Elections, 7(2), 4-33.
Majekodunmi, R., & Adejuwon, K. D. (2012). Electoral administration and the consolidation of democracy: An overview of 2011 general elections in Nigeria. IJPSS, 2(5), 1-26.
Matlosa, K. (2007). The 2007 general elections: A case elections in Lesotho: Managing the post—election conflict (2008).Journal of African Elections, 12-25.
Lindberg, S. (2003). The democratic qualities of competitive elections: Particigitiin Africa. 41 Commonwealth & Comparative Politics, 61-62.
Nzongola-Ntalaja, G. (1989). The state and democracy in Africa. In Ntalaja. & C. L. Margaret (Eds.). The State and Society in Africa, Harare, Zimbabwe, AAPS Books.
Ojo, E. O. (2007). Elections: An exploration of theoretical postulations. Journal of African Elections, 6(2), 4-13
Omotola, J. S. (2007). Godfathers and the 2007 Nigerian general elections. Journal of African Elections, 6(2), 134-154.
Omotosho, M. (2007, September). Political assassinations and the prospects of democracy in Nigeria. Paper Presented at the 1st International 9 Conference, Faculty of Administration, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria.
Osaghae, E. E. (1998). Managing multiple minority problems in a divided society: The Nigerian experience. The Journal of Modern African Studies, 36(1), 1-24.
Roberts. & Edwards. (1991) cited in Omotola (2007).
Seymour, C., & Frary, D. P. (1918). How the world votes-The story of democratic development in elections. Springfield Massachusetts, C.A.: Nichols Company.
Schedler, A. (1998). What is democratic consolidation? Journal of Democracy, 9(2), 91-107.
Schedler, A. (2001). Measuring democratic consolidation. Studies in Comparative International Development, 36(1), 66-92.
Transition Monitoring Group (TMG). (2003). Preliminary reports on the 2003 Nigerian General Elections.
United States Institute of Peace (USIP). (March 10, 2010). Retrieved from www.usip.org
Waki Commission. (2008). Report of the commission of inquiry on post election violence (CIPEV). Nairobi: Kenya Government.
Webster’s Encyclopaedic Dictionary. (2006). pp.583-584.
World Health Organization Report. (2002).
- There are currently no refbacks.
How to do online submission to another Journal?
If you have already registered in Journal A, then how can you submit another article to Journal B? It takes two steps to make it happen:
1. Register yourself in Journal B as an Author
Find the journal you want to submit to in CATEGORIES, click on “VIEW JOURNAL”, “Online Submissions”, “GO TO LOGIN” and “Edit My Profile”. Check “Author” on the “Edit Profile” page, then “Save”.
Go to “User Home”, and click on “Author” under the name of Journal B. You may start a New Submission by clicking on “CLICK HERE”.
We only use three mailboxes as follows to deal with issues about paper acceptance, payment and submission of electronic versions of our journals to databases: firstname.lastname@example.org; email@example.com; firstname.lastname@example.org
Copyright © Canadian Academy of Oriental and Occidental Culture
Address: 9375 Rue de Roissy Brossard, Québec, J4X 3A1, Canada
Telephone: 1-514-558 6138