Earnest Hemingway: Truth & Fiction

Salim E. A. Al-Ibia


The difference between fiction, reality and truth has been a subject of a long debate since Plato excluded literature from his Utopia. Plato insists that literature is a thrice-removed reality or at least an inferior imitation of it. Aristotle, on the other hand, believes that literature might be an improved version of reality. This article explores the possibilities of bridging the gab between fiction and reality and if literature has the power to express truth. I focus the discussion on Earnest Hemingway’s An Old Man at the Bridge, For Whom the Bell Tolls, and a collection of his nonfiction writing- his Spanish Civil War Dispatches. Hemingway indeed managed to portray what he refers to as “absolute truth” in his fiction more than he does in his journalism.


Earnest Hemingway; Fiction; Truth; An Old Man at the Bridge, For Whom the Bell Tolls

Full Text:



Fishkin, S. F. (1985). From fact to fiction: Journalism & imaginative writing in America. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Hemingway, E. (1998). By-line: Ernest Hemingway. William White (Ed.) . New York: Touchstone.

Hemingway, E. (2003). The complete short stories of Ernest Hemingway. New York: Scribner.

Hemingway, E. (2003). For whom the bell tolls. New York: Scribner.

Kobler J. F. (1968). Ernest Hemingway: Journalist and artist. Ann Arbor: UMI Research Press.

Lambadaridou, E.A (1990). “Hemingway’s message to contemporary men.” Hemingway Review 9.2: 146. ILLIAD: 1320.

Lester, J. (2007). Reading for Whom the Bell Tolls with Barthes, Bakhtin, and Shapiro. Hemingway Review, 26(2), 114-24. Literature online.

Nakjavani, E. (1988). Knowledge as power: Robert Jordan as an intellectual hero. Hemingway Review, 7(2), 131.

Shaber, S. R. (1980). Hemingway’s literary journalism: The Spanish Civil War dispatches. Journalism Quarterly, 57(3), 420-24.

Watson, W. B. (1988). “Old Man at the Bridge”: The Making of a Short Story. Hemingway Review, 7(2), 152.

Watson, W. B. (1988). Hemingway’s Spanish Civil War dispatches. Hemingway Review, 7(2), 4.

Woolman, M. (2000). Ways of knowing: An introduction to theory of knowledge. Victoria: IBID Press.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3968/10187


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2018 Salim E. AL-Ibia

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Share us to:   


Online Submissionhttp://cscanada.org/index.php/sll/submission/wizard


How to do online submission to another Journal?

If you have already registered in Journal A, then how can you submit another article to Journal B? It takes two steps to make it happen:

1. Register yourself in Journal B as an Author

Find the journal you want to submit to in CATEGORIES, click on “VIEW JOURNAL”, “Online Submissions”, “GO TO LOGIN” and “Edit My Profile”. Check “Author” on the “Edit Profile” page, then “Save”.

2. Submission

Go to “User Home”, and click on “Author” under the name of Journal B. You may start a New Submission by clicking on “CLICK HERE”.

We only use three mailboxes as follows to deal with issues about paper acceptance, payment and submission of electronic versions of our journals to databases: caooc@hotmail.com; sll@cscanada.net; sll@cscanada.org

 Articles published in Studies in Literature and Language are licensed under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 (CC-BY).


Address: 1055 Rue Lucien-L'Allier, Unit #772, Montreal, QC H3G 3C4, Canada.
Telephone: 1-514-558 6138 
Website: Http://www.cscanada.net; Http://www.cscanada.org 
E-mailoffice@cscanada.net; office@cscanada.org; caooc@hotmail.com

Copyright © 2010 Canadian Academy of Oriental and Occidental Culture