Organizational Commitment of Teachers and Role of Their Employment Traits in the Context of Higher Education Institutions of Pakistan

Hamad Khan, Bahadar Shah, Faqir Sajjad ul Hassan, Shadiullah Khan, Najeebullah Khan


Employment traits have been studied having an impact over the organization commitment of the teachers. However, the scholars have inconsistent views regarding the relative strength of different traits groups such as Experience, Education, Type of Organizations, Chairpersonship, Salary and Designation over the commitment. In existing study, Meyer and Allen (1984-1997) “Three Component Model” was employed for collection of commitment profile of 312 both Public and Private faculty members of Institute of Management Sciences of Pakistan. Test of significance both t and ANOVA was applied and results of the statistical test divulge that most of the demographic variable like (experience, education, Salary etc.) causes a variation in the mean of commitment of the faculty members of Higher Education Institutions of Pakistan.


Organizational commitment; Experience; Education; Nature/type of organizations; Chairpersonship; Reward/salary; Designation

Full Text:



Allen, N. J., & Meyer, J. P. (1990). The measurement and antecedents of affective, continuance and normative commitment to the organization. Journal of occupational psychology, 63(1), 1-18.

Allen, N. J., & Meyer, J. P. (1996). Affective, continuance, and normative commitment to the organization: An examination of construct validity. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 49, 252-276.

Asghar, R. J., Qayyum, A., Zaheer, A., Mughal, A., & Khalid, S. (2011). Implementation of HR Practices in University Teachers of Pakistan. Information Management and Business Review, 3(3), 148-157.

Becker, Howard S. (1960). Notes on the Concept of Commitment, American Journal of Sociology ,66( 1), 32-40

Beins, B. C., & McCarthy, M. A. (2012). Research Methods and Statistics. New Jersey: Pearson Higher Education Inc.

Brimeyer, T. M., Perrucci, R., & Wadsworth, S. M. (2010). Age, tenure, resources for control, and organizational commitment. Social Science Quarterly, 91(2), 511-530.

Chan, W.-Y., Lau, S., Nie, Y., Lim, S., & Hogan, D. (2008). Organizational and Personal Predictors of Teacher Commitment: The Mediating Role of Teacher Efficacy and Identification With School. American Educational Research Journal, 45(3), 597-630.

Chughtai, A. A., & Zafar, S. (2006). Antecedents and Consequences of Organizational Commitment Among Pakistani University Teachers. Applied H.R.M. Research, 11(1), 39-64.

Cochran, W. G. (1977). Sampling techniques. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Elias, S. M. (2009). Employee commitment in times of change: Assessing the importance of attitudes toward organizational change ? Journal of Management, 35(1), 37-55.

Felfe, J., Schmook, R., Schyns, B., & Six, B. (2008). Does the form of employment make a difference? Commitment of traditional, temporary, and self-employed workers. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 72, 81-94.

Fuller, J. B., Hester, K., Barnett, T., & Relyea, L. F. (2006). Perceived organizational support and perceived external prestige: Predicting organizational attachment for university faculty, staff, and administrators. The Journal of Social Psychology, 146 (3), 327-347.

Gellatly, I. R., Meyer, J. P., & Luchak, A. A. (2006). Combined effects of the three Commitment components on focal and discretionary behaviors: A test of Meyer and Herscovitch’s propositions. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 69, 331-345.

Gendron, Y., Suddaby, R., & Qu, S. Q. (2009). Professional—Organisational Commitment: A Study of Canadian Professional Accountants. Australian Accounting Review, 19(3), 231-248.

Gregersen, H. B. & Black, J. S. (1992). Antecedents to commitment to a parent company and a foreign operation. Academy of Management Journal, 35, 65-90.

Griffeth, R. W., Hom, P. W., & Gaertner, S. (2000). A meta-analysis of antecedents and correlates of employee turnover: Update, moderator tests, and research implications for the next millennium. Journal of Management, 26, 463-488.

Hackett, R. D., Bycio, P. & Hausdorf, P. A. (1994). Further assessments of Meyer and Allen’s (1991)three-component model of organizational commitment. Journal of Applied Psychology, 79, 15-23.

Hassan, F. S. (2011). A study of perceived organizational effectiveness and its predictors: The organizational demographic, decision making approach, organization culture, managerial strategy and organization life cycle stage a case of higher education institutions of KP, Paksistan (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Department of Public Administration, Gomal University, Dera Ismail Khan.

Henkin, A. B., & Holliman, S. L. (2009). Urban teacher commitment : Exploring associations with organizational conflict, support for innovation, and participation. Urban Education, 44(2), 160-180.

Higher Education Commission. (2006). News and Views. Islamabad: Higher Education Commission

Islam, T., Ahmad, Z., Ahmed, I., Ahmad, A., Saeed, M., & Muhammad, S. (2012). Does Compensation and Demographical Variable Influence on Teachers Commitment and Job Satisfaction? A Study of University of the Punjab, Pakistan. International Journal of Business and Management, 7(4), 35-43.

Levine, D. M., Krehbiel, T. C., & Berenson, M. L. (2005). Business statistics: A first course. Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd.

Linares, P. J. (2011). Job satisfaction, organization commitment, occupational commitment, turnover intent and leadership style of Tissue bank employees (Doctoral dissertarion). Retrieved from Udini website:

Malhotra, N., Budhwar, P., & Prowse, P. (2007). Linking rewards to commitment: An empirical investigation of four UK call centers. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 18(12), 2095-128.

Mathieu, J. E., & Zajac, D. (1990). A review and meta-analysis of the antecedents, correlates, and consequences of organizational commitment. Psychological Bulletin, 108, 171-194.

McFarlin, D. B., & Sweeney, P. D. (1992). Distributive and procedural justice as predictors of satisfaction with personal and organizational outcomes. Academy of Management Journal, 35, 626-637.

Meyer, J. P., & Allen, N. J. (1984). Testing the “side-bet theory” of organizational commitment: Some methodological considerations. Journal of Applied Psychology, 69(3), 372.

Meyer, J. P., & Allen, N. J. (1991). A three-component conceptualization of organizational commitment. Human Resource Management Review, 1(1), 61-89.

Meyer, J. P., & Allen, N. J. (1997). Commitment in the workplace: Theory, research, and application. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.

Meyer, J. P., Allen, N. J., & Gellatly, I. R. (1990). Affective and continuance commitment to the organization: Evaluation of measures and analysis of concurrent and time-lagged relations. The Journal of Applied Psychology, 75, 710-720.

Meyer, J. P., Stanley, D. J., Herscovitch, L., & Topolnytsky, L. (2002). Affective, continuance, and normative Commitment to the Organization: A Meta-analysis of Antecedents, Correlates, and Consequences. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 61(1), 20-52.

Meyer, J. P., Stanley, D. J., Jackson, T. A., McInnis, K. J., Maltin, E. R., & Sheppard, L. (2011). Affective, normative, and continuance commitment levels across cultures: A meta-analysis. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 80(2), 225-245.

Meyer, J. P., Stanley, L. J., & Parfyonova, N. M. (2012). Employee commitment in context: The nature and implication of commitment profiles. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 80, 1-16.

Mowday, R. T., Koberg, C. S., & McArthur, A. W. (1984). The Psychology of the Withdrawal Process: A Cross-validation Test of Mobley’s Intermediate Linkages Model of Turnover in Two Samples. Academy of Management Journal, 27, 79-94.

Mowday, R. T., L. Porter, W., & Dubin, R. (1974). Unit Performance, Situational Factors, and Employee Attitudes in Spatially Separated Work Units. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 12, 231-248.

Mowday, R.T., Steers, R. M., & Porter, L. W. (1979). The measurement of organizational commitment. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 14, 224-247.

Moynihan, D. P., & Pandey, S. K. (2007). Finding workable levers over work motivation comparing job satisfaction, job involvement, and organizational commitment. Administration & Society, 39(7), 803-832.

Naqvi, S. M., & Bashir, S. (2012). IT-expert retention through organizational commitment A study of public sector information technology professionals in Pakistan. Applied Computing and Informatics. Retrieved from

Nawab, D. S., & Bhatti, K. (2011). Influence of employee compensation on organizational commitment and job satisfaction:A case study of educational sector of Pakistan. International Journal of Business and Social Science, 2(8), 25-32.

Newman, A., & Sheikh, A. Z. (2012). Organizational rewards and employee commitment: A Chinese study. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 27(1), 71-89.

Panaccio, A., & Vandenberghe, C. (2009). Perceived organizational support, organizational commitment and psychological well-being: A longitudinal study. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 75, 224-236.

Porter, L. W., Steers, R. M., Mowday, R. T., & Boulian, P. V. (1974). Organizational commitment, job satisfaction, and turnover among psychiatric technicians. Journal of Applied Psychology, 59(5), 603-609.

Ramay, M. I. (2010). Influence of leadership behaviorand participatory decision making on the employees organizational commitment (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from Pakistan Research Repository website:

Sekaran, U. (2006). Research methods for business: A skill-building approach. New York: Johan Wiley & Sons.

Somers, M. J. (2009). The combined influence of affective, continuance, and normative commitment on employee withdrawal. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 74, 75-81.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Share us to:   


  • How to do online submission to another Journal?
  • If you have already registered in Journal A, then how can you submit another article to Journal B? It takes two steps to make it happen:

1. Register yourself in Journal B as an Author

  • Find the journal you want to submit to in CATEGORIES, click on “VIEW JOURNAL”, “Online Submissions”, “GO TO LOGIN” and “Edit My Profile”. Check “Author” on the “Edit Profile” page, then “Save”.

2. Submission

  • Go to “User Home”, and click on “Author” under the name of Journal B. You may start a New Submission by clicking on “CLICK HERE”.

We only use three mailboxes as follows to deal with issues about paper acceptance, payment and submission of electronic versions of our journals to databases:;;

 Articles published in Management Science and Engineering are licensed under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 (CC-BY).


Address: 9375 Rue de Roissy Brossard, Québec, J4X 3A1, Canada

Telephone: 1-514-558 6138
Http:// Http://

Copyright © 2010 Canadian Research & Development Centre of Sciences and Cultures